Lebanese Public Schools: 20th or 21st Century Schools? An Investigation into Teachers’ Instructional Practices

Author(s): Norma Ghamrawi, Najah A. R. Ghamrawi, Tarek Shal

This study investigated the offerings of Lebanese public schools against requirements of 21st century skills through the lenses of teachers. A survey that captures the features of the 21st century schools was adapted from Hixson, Ravitz & Whisman (2012) and was administered to 667 middle and secondary schoolteachers in 68 public schools in Beirut and Mount Lebanon. The survey addressed 8 teaching practices that are recognized in the literature as the basic 21st century skills: critical thinking skills, collaboration skills, communication skills, creativity and innovation skills, self-direction skills, global connections skills, local connections skills, and technology skills. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 for windows. Results indicated that a huge gap existed between how schools function as opposed to how they are supposed to do so, in light of the 21st century demands. Lebanese public schools have not yet moved to the 21st century and are quite far from doing so. Recommendations for policy and practice are provided.


Journal: Open Journal of Leadership
DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2017.61001 (PDF)
Paper Id: 73775


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One Response to Lebanese Public Schools: 20th or 21st Century Schools? An Investigation into Teachers’ Instructional Practices

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