Authors: Cherif Mohamadou Aidara, Caroline Magne, Philomene Kouna,
Gaelle Ebinda Mipinda, Abdoulaye Dione Diop, Abdoulaye Ndoye Diop, Sokhna Ba
Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping thickness is a forest and rural disease; where agriculture is the main activity. It is a chronic and lethal disease without treatment. HAT is caused by two parasites; Trypanosoma Brucei Gambiense (gTB) and Trypanosoma Brucei Rhodesiense (rTB) transmitted to humans by the tsetse fly. It is endemic condition in Africa between the 15° north latitude and the 20° south latitude. It is reported outside this area in travelers who stayed in endemic zone. Infection by gTB is wider and more frequent (98%) than that by rTB (2%). The Democratic Republic of Congo is the most affected country with more than 75% of reported cases. The geographical distribution is not homogeneous. There are more affected regions in a zone called “foci” which represents areas favorable to the development of the vector. Its diagnosis and treatment are very important because of its social and economic impact at both the individual and community levels. Promising molecules including fexinidazole are currently undergoing testing. Nowadays populations move more and more easily but the discovery of this disease in daily neuroradiological practice is exceptional. We propose in this paper through two observations, reminders on epidemiological, clinical and MRI features of HAT. It typically performs the edematous, bilateral and diffuse encephalitis. It is important to distinguish these aspects from the arsenic-induced encephalitis that may occur during treatment. Only vector control allows eradicating this disease. WHO has set targets elimination of HAT as a public health problem for 2020 deadline.
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