Author: David Johnson
Defining the electron to be a toroidal form of concentrated energy rather than a monopole point-charge, such as used for the Orbital Nuclear Atomic Model (ONAM), leads to a subtly different explanation for electricity and the dynamic nature of electromagnetic fields. The Spin Torus Energy Model (STEM) is used to define the electron and positron, which are then used to explain the nature of electric and magnetic fields, electric current generation from battery and induction sources, capacitor charge and discharge, and superconductivity. STEM supports the notion that free positrons exist within matter, and are equal in importance to electrons: as ONAM makes no provision for positrons within matter, this assertion has wide ranging implications for atomic structure models and chemistry.
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