Prediction of Wine Quality Using Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: K. R. Dahal, J. N. Dahal, H. Banjade, S. Gaire

As a subfield of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML) aims to understand the structure of the data and fit it into models, which later can be used in unseen data to achieve the desired task. ML has been widely used in various sectors such as in Businesses, Medicine, Astrophysics, and many other scientific problems. Inspired by the success of ML in different sectors, here, we use it to predict the wine quality based on the various parameters. Among various ML models, we compare the performance of Ridge Regression (RR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Gradient Boosting Regressor (GBR), and multi-layer Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to predict the wine quality. Multiple parameters that determine the wine quality are analyzed. Our analysis shows that GBR surpasses all other models’ performance with MSE, R, and MAPE of 0.3741, 0.6057, and 0.0873 respectively. This work demonstrates, how statistical analysis can be used to identify the components that mainly control the wine quality prior to the production. This will help wine manufacturer to control the quality prior to the wine production.


Journal: Open Journal of Statistics
DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2021.112015(PDF)
Paper Id: 107796 (metadata)

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Influential Factors of Innovation Input Decisions: Evidence of Chinese Listed Companies

Authors: Zhijun Lin, Shijie Wang, Shizhong Yang

This study analyzes the influential factors underlying corporate innovation input decisions with a theoretical framework based on Cournot Equilibrium in game theory. By identifying the influential factors in theoretical deduction, we incorporate these factors with a sample of Chinese listed companies to empirically examine their impact on corporate innovation input decisions (e.g., R&D investment). The results reveal that corporate innovation input in terms of R & D investment is negatively associated with innovation risk, product cost and cost of capital, and positively related to profitability and innovation efficacy, which are consistent with the inferences of the theoretical framework and confirm the validity of our analytical model. With expanded sample range (multi-industries) and incorporation of market and governmental factors simultaneously, the findings are confirmatory to the main views of previous studies, and help to clarify the inconsistency in the findings in the extant literature. However, our empirical findings show that the type of business ownership (nature of equity right) and the level of regional marketization development do not significantly affect corporate R&D investment by the sample Chinese listed companies at present. This may be an evidence to support the development status of a market economy in China.


Journal: American Journal of Industrial and Business Management
DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2021.113017(PDF)
Paper Id: 107775 (metadata)

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Affordable Water Filtration Technology for Disinfection By-Product Control for Small Rural Communities by Using Carbon Extracted from Local Fly Ash

Authors: He Zhang, Tahir Husain

The fly ash generated from local pulp and paper industries was transformed into activated carbon (AC) through physical activation process in a high temperature tube furnace in this study. Effects of two factors including activation temperature and activation time were investigated. Iodine number (IN), methylene blue value (MBV), and surface microstructure were all analyzed to assess the adsorption capacity of different carbon samples. The surface area of the carbon sample increased significantly from 486.44 m2/g to 847.26 m2/g before and after activation. The jar tests revealed that the use of 0.5 g (AC)/L (water) has the highest adsorption effectiveness. Meanwhile, the column filtration experiment indicated more than 60% of the organic matter can be removed by the carbon barrier within 2 hours filtration. The follow-up chlorination experiment illustrated that the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) could be considerably prevented after filtration. Above all, the cost-effective carbon filtration technology developed in this study can potentially be applied as a pre-treatment technology for intake source waters for local communities.


Journal: Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering
DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2021.92011(PDF)
Paper Id: 107748


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Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery for Residual Aneurysm after Total Arch Replacement

Authors: Kayo Sugiyama, Hirotaka Watanuki, Yasuhiro Futamura, Masaho Okada,
Hiroki Numanami, Masayuki Yamaji, Satoshi Makino, Katsuhiko Matsuyama

Background: Residual aneurysms after graft replacement are rare, but they can be detrimental if they are saccular and large. The etiology of residual aneurysms remains unknown, and their management is controversial. One treatment option is late open surgical conversion; however, postoperative respiratory complications resulting from the dissection of pleural adhesions, which is frequently necessary with this approach, are often unavoidable. Case presentation: Herein, we report a case of open surgical repair of a residual distal aortic arch aneurysm that occurred after total arch replacement and thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was not possible in this case due to the patient’s severe renal dysfunction; however, contrast-enhanced computed tomography using minimal contrast did not detect remarkable leakage through the graft or stent graft into the aneurysm. Late open surgical conversion using video-assisted thoracic surgery was performed by thoracic surgeons, and the adhesion between the aortic wall and the lung was safely and effectively dissected. Because there was no significant pulsation or evidence of feeding arteries in the aortic wall, the aortic wall was opened carefully. No bleeding or backflow from any branch arteries into the aneurysm was noted, so the aortic wall was ligated with continuous sutures. The patient recovered without experiencing any major complications. Conclusions: This case report demonstrates that video-assisted thoracic surgery is safe and effective for late open conversion in cases of residual aneurysm; furthermore, this case suggests that video-assisted thoracic surgery may be particularly beneficial for the dissection of adhesions between the aortic wall and lung in these cases.


Journal: Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery
DOI: 10.4236/ojts.2021.111004(PDF)
Paper Id: 107734 (metadata)

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Effects of Biochar Application on Soil Properties, Plant Biomass Production, and Soil Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Mini-Review

Author: Dafeng Hui

Biochar has been applied extensively as a soil amendment over the past decades. This review summarizes the general findings of the impacts of biochar application on different aspects from soil physical, chemical, and microbial properties, to soil nutrient availabilities, plant growth, biomass production and yield, greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, and soil carbon sequestration. Due to different biochar pyrolysis conditions, feedstock types, biochar application rates and methods, and potential interactions with other factors such as plant species and soil nutrient conditions, results from those studies are not inclusive. However, most studies reported positive effects of biochar application on soil physical and chemical properties, soil microbial activities, plant biomass and yield, and potential reductions of soil GHG emissions. A framework of biochar impacts is summarized, and possible mechanisms are discussed. Further research of biochar application in agriculture is called to verify the proposed mechanisms involved in biochar-soil-microbial-plant interactions for soil carbon sequestration and crop biomass and yield improvements.


Journal: Agricultural Sciences
DOI: 10.4236/as.2021.123014(PDF)
Paper Id: 107694 (metadata)

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Simulation of a Model for International Traveler’s Check-In Process Using Arena Software Tool

Authors: J. L. Obetta, O. O. Olusanyan, M. O. Oyediran*, W. B. Wahab, A. T. Olusesi,
A. W. Elegbede

With the current situation of insecurity in Nigeria and the worsening condition of Nigerian roads, there is increasing demand for air travel. This increasing demand for airline services amidst limited resources results in passenger dissatisfaction and reduction of revenue for airports and airlines. The dynamics of service demand and resource supply result in check-in issues for all the stakeholders in the commercial aviation industry. Hence, this research simulated the developed model for travelers’ check-in process at the “D Wing” of the Departure Section of Murtala Muhammed International Airport (MMIA), Ikeja, using Arena Software Tool. The simulation of the developed model was carried out by varying five different configurations of the servers with respect to the baggage weighing machines and passenger profiling devices to obtain the minimum average check-in time (ACT) for the process, with each configuration undergoing 133 completions of simulation runs. The result of the experimentation revealed that the 3 × 3 × 4 configuration of servers produced the smallest ACT of 18.25 minutes. This translates to a difference of about 58 minutes from the 76.16 minutes ACT of the real system; representing about 76% improvement in the check-in time of passengers. This study contributed to knowledge by revealing that the main choke points in the MMIA check-in system occur at the baggage weighing and passenger profiling areas as against the check-in counter sub-section as advanced by previous works. Furthermore, the research added value to knowledge by creating a balance between customer satisfaction and cost of operations thereby accommodating the interests of the passenger and the operator who are the two main stakeholders in the commercial aviation industry.


Journal: Engineering
DOI: 10.4236/eng.2021.133010(PDF)
Paper Id: 107683 (metadata)

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25 Years of Cancer Chemotherapy Pathways: A Brief History with a Look to the Future

Author: J. Russell Hoverman

For patients receiving chemotherapy, drugs represent the largest cost. Clinical chemotherapy Pathways have become a critical strategy to identify unnecessary drug costs and to implement mechanisms to deliver lower cost alternatives without sacrificing outcomes or quality of care. This paper describes the steps of development of a functioning pathways program beginning in an environment of full-risk capitation, including drugs. The next steps involved quantitating the potential impact of such a program and then collaborating with a payer to test the concept. When these studies showed promise, the practices adopting pathways used them as a backbone for drug management in the Oncology Care Model. These experiences very likely represent steps in a continuum towards placing more of the drug delivery costs at risk. The potential for again considering capitated payments is discussed.


Journal: Health
DOI: 10.4236/health.2021.133018(PDF)
Paper Id: 107658 (metadata)

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3-(Tetrazol-5-yl)-2-imino-coumarins Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation on Tumor Cell Lines

Authors: Ali Bouattour, Mehdi Fakhfakh, Souhir Abid El-Gharbi, Majdi Abid,
Ludovic Paquin, Rémy Le Guevel, Thierry Charlier, Houcine Ammar,
Jean-Pierre Bazureau

The first report of new 3-(tetrazol-5-yl)-2-iminocoumarin derivatives is described. The title compounds were prepared in two steps and were obtained in good yields (55-93%). They have been fully characterized by 1H, 13C NMR, FTIR, UV-Visible and HRMS. They were tested for their antiproliferative activities against six representative human tumor cell lines (Huh 7-D12, Caco2, MDA-MB231, HCT 116, PC3 and NCI-H727) and HaCat keratinocytes. Among them, compound 5e was active on HCT 116 (IC50 15 μM).


Journal: International Journal of Organic Chemistry
DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2021.111003(PDF)
Paper Id: 107622 (metadata)

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Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Flight Safety Improvement Using In-Flight fd

Authors: André L. P. Mattei, Engenharia S. A. Orbital, Claudio F. M. Toledo,
Jesimar da Silva Arantes, Onofre Trindade Jr.

This paper presents a novel onboard system called In-Flight Awareness Augmentation System (IFA2S) to improve flight safety. IFA2S is designed to semi-automatically (with human supervision) avoid hazards and accidents due to either internal or external causal factors. The requirements were defined in an innovative way using Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) method and applied next to model the system. IFA2S increases aircraft awareness regarding both itself and its environment and, at the same time, recognizes platform and operational constraints to act in accordance to predefined decision algorithms. Results are presented through simulations and flight tests using state machines designed to allow the adoption of appropriate actions for the identified hazards. The different decision algorithms are evaluated over as many as possible hazard situations by simulations conducted with software Labview and XPlane flight simulator. Flight tests are performed in a small fixed wing aircraft and make use of a limited version IFA2S, partially attending identified requirements. Results support the conclusion that IFA2S is capable of improving flight safety.


Journal: Intelligent Information Management
DOI: 10.4236/iim.2021.132005(PDF)
Paper Id: 107597 (metadata)

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Impact of Time-Management on the Student’s Academic Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Adham Alyami, Abdulrahman Abdulwahed, Abdulrahman Azhar, Abdullah Binsaddik, Saeed M. Bafaraj

For students to better manage their curriculum and achieve learning objectives, time management behaviors or skills are argued to improve the positive academic output. The aim of the study is to find the impact of time management on the academic performance of students among the diagnostic radiology technology students at KAU. This study had a cross-sectional survey-based study design. It was conducted among students of diagnostic radiology technology department at King Abdul-Aziz University from Sep. 2020 to Feb. 2021. For this study, 152 students were targeted among which 142 completed the questionnaire, making the response rate of 93.4%. Among 142 participants, 75 (52.8%) were females and 52 (36.6%) were in the 2018 batch. Majority of the students i.e., 107 (75.4%) had GPA between 4.5 – 5 in 2020. Whereas, 37.3% agreed or strongly agreed that they manage their time. Here, 69.2% students with 4.5 – 5 GPA strongly agreed that they meet their deadline (p value = 0.005) and 36.7% students with 4 – 4.5 GPA strongly believed that their academic performance decreased due to mis planning (p value = 0.005). Around 71 (66.3%) students with 4.5 – 5 GPA agreed or strongly agreed to make to do list or calendar (p value 0.047). In conclusion, according to student’s perception, preplanning their studies had been beneficial for their academic performance. However, less than half of the students agreed that they manage their time.


Journal: Creative Education
DOI: 10.4236/ce.2021.123033(PDF)
Paper Id: 107573 (metadata)

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