Authors: Thalita Fernanda Abbruzzini, Mariana Delgado Oliveira Zenero,
Pedro Avelino Maia de Andrade, Fernando Dini Andreote, Julio Campo,
Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri
The sugar and bioethanol industry generate large amounts of filter cake and vinasse, residues that are applied to sugarcane fields as conditioners and organic fertilizers. However, these may be significant sources of greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere. This study assessed the impact of sugarcane straw biochar on the emissions of CO2, CH4and N2O promoted by filter cake and vinasse applied to soil, and its effects on the chemical properties and bacterial communities of a Typic Hapludox and a Quartzipsamment. A laboratory incubation was conducted for 100 days with both soils under five treatments: vinasse and filter cake amendment (FV), plus biochar at 10 (FV + B10), 20 (FV + B20) and 50 (FV + B50) Mg·ha-1, and a control. Soil pH, available P and exchangeable base contents increased with biochar added to sandy soil. Mineral N decreased with biochar addition to both soils. The FV treatment increased CO2 emissions by 5-fold and 2.4-fold in sandy and clayey soils, respectively, compared to the control. Moreover, FV +B10 increased CO2 emissions by 4% and 6.4% in sandy and clayey soils, respectively, compared to FV. Cumulative N2O emissions in FV were 537% and 125% higher in sandy and clayey soils, respectively, compared to the control. Nevertheless, increasing biochar amendment rates reduced N2O emissions from 24% to 34% in sandy soil, and from 14% to 56% in clayey soil. CH4 emissions were negligible. The effects of filter, vinasse and biochar amendments on soil amelioration were closely related to its buffering capacity. Temporal changes on bacterial community structure were more pronounced in the sandy soil compared to clayey, and indicated that N2O emission mitigation in clayey soil was directly related to biotic mechanisms, while abiotic mechanisms caused by biochar played a more important role in mitigating N2O emissions in sandy soil.
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