Author(s): James Rizkalla, Vinay Kumar Suryadevara, Ashok Kumar Thella, Ahdy Helmy, Paul Salama, Maher E. Rizkalla
The possible features of photo acoustic tomography (PAT) in medical research and practice, including applications in orthopedics and cardiovascular areas, among others, have motivated the emphasis of this Biomedical Science study towards human bone applications. PAT modality is an emerging approach that features safety and greater penetration depth compared to other modalities such as X-ray and microwave. The high-resolution images and safety related to PAT modality are attributed to the scattering properties of ultrasound as compared to light within a human tissue. PAT brought considerable attention from the medical research community to target optimum parameters for practical models. It includes source frequency penetration depth, dynamic temperature responses, and acoustic pressure throughout the multilayer structure of the human tissues. In this work, the acoustic pressure and the bio-heat equations were analyzed for power distribution and penetration depth, covering the basic principles of PAT within the human body. Three sources with three different heat energy pulses; 1 s, 3 s, and 5 s, were considered in order to study the rise time and fall time dynamic responses inside the bone material. The computer simulation was designed to simulate the human tissue at 1 MHz with an acoustic pressure of 1 MPa. A penetration depth for all sources was estimated to be near 4 cm with a temperature change from 0.5 K to near 1 K over a period of 10 s. The simulation data provide promising results when taken to the next level of practical implementation. The 4 cm penetration depth range may enable the researchers to investigate multiple layers within the human body, leading to non-invasive deterministic approach. The simulation presented here will serve as a pilot study towards photoacoustic applications in orthopedic applications.
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