Study on Helium Bubble Coalescence in Titanium with Dislocations

Authors: Baoling Zhang, Xue Su, Chongyang Li, Junwei Zhang

Dislocation and grain boundary have great influence on helium behavior in materials. In this paper, the helium bubble coalescence in titanium with dislocations was simulated using molecular dynamics method. The results show that, when the second helium bubble nucleates near the slip plane, it grows toward the first helium bubble which lies at the dislocation core till they coalesce with each other. However, it is not easy for the coalescence to occur if the two helium bubbles lie in different atomic layers in (001) plane. If the second helium bubble is nucleated on the side of the slip plane with full atomic layers, the second helium bubble growth could lead to the movement of the first helium bubble toward the other sides of the slip plane. The growth rate and direction of the second helium bubble are closely related to the pressure around it.


Journal: World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology
DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2021.112005

Paper Id: 108217 (metadata)

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Teachers Methodological Strategies and School Coexistence in Physical Education

Author: Francisco Javier Gil-Espinosa

The learning environment influences the teaching-learning process as well as the welfare of the educational community members. The problems of discipline and coexistence in class are a general concern in mandatory secondary education. The purpose of this research is to identify some methodological strategies that could be applied by teachers when students in compulsory secondary education engage in disruptive behaviors in order to improve classroom management. The participants are 147 instructors of Physical Education (PE) who are teaching actively in institutions of compulsory secondary education. Participants completed two questionnaires which created “ad hoc” to evaluate the students’ problematic behaviors regarding coexistence in these classes. A description was made of the characteristics of the teaching staff and their center, for which the absolute and relative frequencies were described in the qualitative variables and the mean values and standard deviation were calculated for the quantitative variables. The results of this research provide guidance for the use of different classroom management techniques and schools organization considering such problem behaviors. In fact, most of the teaching staff consider important the use of teaching strategies to carry out PE class with less problems of Coexistence.


Journal: Advances in Physical Education
DOI: 10.4236/ape.2021.112013(PDF)
Paper Id: 108170 (metadata)

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The Value of Trust and Fairness in Alliances: An Economic Perspective

Authors: Kiridaran Kanagaretnam, Alex Thevaranjan

In this paper, we develop an analytical model to illustrate the role of trust and fairness in alliances and quantify their economic value to alliance partners. We show that alliance profits and the individual firms’ profits are greatest when partners trust and deal fairly with each other. Moreover, trusting and fair dealing partners benefit the most from the synergies of joint production. We also show that when partners do not trust each other, the alliance profits are reduced by a large amount. The alliance potential is further destroyed if partners do not deal fairly with each other in addition to not trusting each other. The lack of trust and fair play causes firms to fight for control. The fight may result in conflict between the two partners or the emergence of a dominant partner. In the dominant partner case, we show that only alliances with high levels of synergy will be formed. But even then, the dominant partner will realize only a small portion of the benefits from synergy.


Journal: Theoretical Economics Letters
DOI: 10.4236/tel.2021.112012(PDF)
Paper Id: 108079 (metadata)

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Trusted Blockchain Oracle Scheme Based on Aggregate Signature

Authors: Xiaodong Liu, Jun Feng

With the development of blockchain technology, more and more applications need out-of-chain data. Thus, blockchain oracles have become an important bridge for transferring data on and off the chain. This paper studies the mainstream blockchain oracles scheme, summarizes the shortcomings of the existing schemes and proposes a new blockchain oracle scheme based on BLS (Bohen-Lynn-Shacham) aggregation signature to ensure that off-chain data can be transferred into the blockchain in a trusted and reliable way. Specifically, the scheme uses multiple blockchain oracles to avoid the single point of failure or even a small number of malicious oracles, and improve the credibility of data. At the same time, it not only uses BLS aggregate signature to reduce the storage cost and communication overhead, but also uses commitment mechanisms to ensure the reliability and authenticity of the data. Besides, the simulation results show that the scheme can meet the practical application requirements.


Journal: Journal of Computer and Communications
DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2021.93007(PDF)
Paper Id: 108068 (metadata)

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Structuring an Ontology for Mathematical Modelling Wastewater Flow through Porous Media

Author: Stephanos D. V. Giakoumatos

Single or multi-layer infiltration rate models describe water penetration into soil porous zone at a variety of comparable complexity levels. Commonly, those models are indicating a route leading from general to more specific case depending on the mathematical structure and the simulated ongoing phenomenon. For the purpose of wastewater flow quantification through porous media, an algorithmic procedure was developed which includes certain interconnected activity stages and decision nodes. Furthermore, a schematic cross shaped representation of the infiltration rate models’ ontology is presented within a route, leading from general to more specific models and evaluation criteria are introduced to determine highest ranking and thus the best model amid those placed on the horizontal axis of the cross shaped scheme, via a simple Multi-Criteria Analysis Decision Making.


Journal: Intelligent Information Management
DOI: 10.4236/iim.2021.132008(PDF)
Paper Id: 107999 (metadata)

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Hydrological Modeling: A Better Alternative to Empirical Methods for Monthly Flow Estimation in Ungauged Basins

Authors: Suresh Marahatta, Laxmi Devkota, Deepak Aryal

Water resource is required for agricultural, industrial, and domestic activities and for environmental preservation. However, with the increase in population and growth of urbanization, industrialization, and commercial activities, planning and management of water resources have become a challenging task to meet various water demands globally. Information and data on streamflow hydrology are, thus, crucial for this purpose. However, availability of measured flow data in many cases is either inadequate or not available at all. When there is no gauging station available at the site of interest, various empirical methods are generally used to estimate the flow there and the best estimation is chosen. This study is focused on the estimation of monthly average flows by such methods popular in Nepal and assessment of how they compare with the results of hydrological simulation. Performance evaluation of those methods was made with a newly introduced index, Global Performance Index (GPI) utilizing six commonly used goodness-of-fit parameters viz. coefficient of determination, mean absolute error, root mean square error, percentage of volume bias, Nash Sutcliff Efficiency and Kling-Gupta Efficiency. This study showed that hydrological modeling is the best among the considered methods of flow estimation for ungauged catchments.


Journal: Journal of Water Resource and Protection
DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2021.133015(PDF)
Paper Id: 107951 (metadata)

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Interdependence of Software and Progress of Mathematics in OR: Some Illustrative Cases and Challenges

Authors: Santosh Kumar, Elias Munapo

This paper points out that delayed or no supply of software can kill potential benefits associated with new mathematical ideas that have led to development of new mathematics in OR. It also points out that it is a self-created situation by the scientific community. This situation needs attention and should be resolved urgently. Many illustrative examples have been given to justify the claim.


Journal: American Journal of Operations Research
DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2021.112007(PDF)
Paper Id: 107931 (metadata)

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Evaluation of the Impact of Presence Lighting and Digital Speed Limit Trailers on Interstate Speeds in Indiana Work Zones

Authors: Rahul Suryakant Sakhare, Jairaj C. Desai, Jijo K. Mathew, John D. McGregor, Darcy M. Bullock

Work zone safety continues to be one of the important focus areas for transportation agencies. Previous studies have identified that vehicle speed and lighting conditions are significant risk factors impacting work zone safety. This study evaluated the impact of the use of presence lighting and digital speed limit trailers on nighttime motorist speeds using commercially available connected vehicle speed data. Geospatial analysis was conducted on over 500,000 connected vehicle records to linear reference nearly 18,000 records from 195 unique trajectories to study section during the study period of 2 days. Results showed that median speeds reduced by 4 to 13 mph from 11PM to 7AM during the deployment of presence lighting and speed limit trailers compared to base conditions. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistical test comparing 105 vehicles traveling through the construction zone with presence lighting and speed limit trailers with a group of 90 vehicles during base condition indicated the speeds during the deployment of presence lighting and speed limit trailers were lower than the base condition. Also, increased compliance with the 55 mph speed limit was observed when the presence lighting and digital speed limit trailers were deployed. However, there were two hours (3AM to 5AM) where speeds increased by 0 – 4 mph, perhaps due to the low volume at that hour. The encouraging results support the further deployment of presence lighting and speed limit trailers in nighttime construction zones for reducing vehicle speeds. Those future deployments should be monitored with connected vehicle speeds to collect additional data to broaden the evaluation of these speed mitigation techniques over a diverse set of construction zone activities.


Journal: Journal of Transportation Technologies
DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2021.112010(PDF)
Paper Id: 107921 (metadata)

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Influence of Chitosan Characteristics in the Microencapsulation of Essential Oils

Authors: Manuel José Lis Arias, Arianne López, Mercè Vilaseca, Betina Vallès, Remedios Prieto, Mercedes Simó, José Alexandre Borges Valle, Rita De Cássia Siqueira Curto Valle, Fabriccio Maesta Bezerra, Jordi Puiggalí Bellalta

The fight against nosocomial infections in hospitals, has promoted the use of microencapsulated essential oils on medical wearing uniforms. These types of microcapsules can be improved with the use of antimicrobial polymers in the shell structure. Chitosan is one of the most used biopolymers and the effectiveness of the treatment can be increased with the combination of different molecular weight chains of chitosan. This modification in the composition of shell structure allows controlling the rate of hydrolysis and, therefore the amount of its cationic form. The main objective of this work is to define a methodology to get microcapsules with different shell compositions, using surfactants as stabilizers in their first step. Once they have been obtained, these microcapsules will be fixed into textile substrates with the objective to use these tissues as surgical and medical clothes to spread the antibacterial effect, in sanitary staff, as well as in the own patient. In the process of microencapsulation the molecular weight distribution of polymers, influences strongly the delivery mechanisms of the active principle, as well as the chemical characteristics of the textile substrate used in every case. In this work, several chitosan biopolymers have been checked. Structural changes in the stabilization first step and the influence of the cross-linking extension have been related with the final antibacterial effect when fixed on cotton substrates.


Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering
DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2021.143012(PDF)
Paper Id: 107871 (metadata)

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Utilizing Human Remains for Science: Ethical, Legal, and Scientific Issues in Croatia, United Kingdom and the United States

Authors: Ante Lozina, Ivana Kružić, Ana Banovac, Dea Bogunović, Željana Bašić,
Irina Zakirova, James Rayner, Martin Smith

The study of human remains has a significant impact on the present society. They are utilized in research, in fields studying the human past and origins, in epidemiology, the study of anatomy and morphology, pathology and trauma, and form a part of museum exhibits. On the other hand, they are significant to various groups in cultural, religious, spiritual, and personal ways. Therefore, these factors should be considered when conducting research. Although some countries ensure legal protection of human remains, usually, such concerns usually cover remains that are younger than 100 years. The differences between countries in legal protections and also the cultural, religious, and ethical attitudes that underlie them can hinder international cooperation. The current collaborative research study sought to investigate and compare such differences between Croatian, United Kingdom’s and United States’ approach to the study of human remains encompassing the following: definitions of human remains as cultural goods, legal issues with obtaining custody over the body parts, compensations for the next of kin for the use of human remains for science, and public perceptions about obtaining body parts for scientific purposes through cultural and religious aspects in perspective with religious beliefs, education, place of origin, gender and attitudes towards science. After collecting data and determining all the above mentioned factors, our aim is to propose the policies on utilizing human remains on multilateral/international level (especially regarding human remains in museums and related institutions) through guidelines, taking into account the differences in ethnicity, religion and degree of formal education between social groups in different countries.


Journal: Beijing Law Review
DOI: 10.4236/blr.2021.121009(PDF)
Paper Id: 107844 (metadata)

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