Sport Coaches Learn to Coach in Hong Kong

Author: Alberto Cruz

Sport coaching is dynamic and complex. Sport coaches must develop a range of skills and knowledge to coach competently. Studies have shown that school sport coaches learn to coach through many different situations. School sport coaches seem to learn to coach through life experiences in various learning situations. To date, few studies have investigated the process by which school sport coaches in Hong Kong learn how to coach. Therefore, the present study examined the learning situations in which school sport coaches learn to coach and the factors that influence their coaching practice, using Moon’s generic view of learning. Twelve sport coaches with a minimum of one year’s experience of coaching in schools were recruited in this study. Snowball sampling was employed to maximise variation of the sample. Two semistructured interviews were conducted to gather information concerning their sporting experiences, career paths, learning-to-coach processes, and coaching practice in schools. Deductive content analysis was used to organise and categorise the data. The trustworthiness of the study was established using peer debriefing and member checking. Continue reading

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Removal of Lithium Citrate from H3A for Determination of Plant Available P

Authors: Richard L. Haney, Elizabeth B. Haney, Douglas R. Smith, Michael J. White

The soil extractant, H3A, has undergone several iterations to extract calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), potassium (K), phosphorus (P), ammonium (NH4-N) and nitrate (NO3-N) under ambient soil conditions. Few soil extractants currently used by commercial and university soil testing laboratories can perform multi-nutrient extraction without over- or under-estimating at least one nutrient. Soil pH and plant root exudates have a strong influence on nutrient availability and H3A was developed to mimic soil conditions. Lithium citrate was previously used in the H3A formulation, but resulted in a cloudy supernatant in some samples, complicating laboratory analyses. In this study, we removed lithium citrate and compared the nutrients extracted from the modified (H3A-4) to the established (H3A-3) solutions. We found that the new extractant, H3A-4, produced a clear supernatant even in soils with low pH and high iron and aluminum concentrations. H3A-4 accurately predicts plant available nutrients and is a viable choice for commercial and laboratory settings due to its ease of use.


Journal: Open Journal of Soil Science
DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2017.711022 (PDF)
Paper Id: 80275 (metadata)

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The Effectiveness of Animal Dungs and Leaf Mold for Bioelectricity Generation Using Microbial Fuel Cell with Soils

Authors: Tun Ahmad Gazali, M. Azizul Moqsud

A resource recovery from waste material is an important topic. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is getting interest nowadays due to its superiority to generate electricity from a wide range of substrates by utilizing organic wastes. This study was aimed to investigate the potential electricity generation by utilizing animal dung and leaf mold as a very prospective substrate for bioelectricity generation using MFC. MFC as a direct current source (DC), in this experiment we focus to prove the potential difference (voltage) generated by the material. The best result is 10980 ± 11.32 mV/m2 for a mixed sample of Test V (leaf mold and soil), while for the pure samples showed at 10880 ± 4.784 mV/m2 for Test IV (chicken dropping). The advancements in this environmentally friendly study have expanded that cow dung, chicken droppings and leaf mold as a variety of organic wastes which contains large amounts of nutrients and various other minerals, as a microbial fuel cell proved to generate sustainable green and safe electricity moreover as an efficient, eco-friendly solution for organic waste management.


Journal: Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems
DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2017.74012 (PDF)
Paper Id: 80209 (metadata)

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Total Elbow Replacement as an Alternative to Severely Comminuted Fractures around the Elbow

Authors: Eyal Ginesin, Doron Norman

Background: Intra articular elbow fractures are considered to be one of the most complex injuries in orthopedic trauma. Some are too comminuted for open reduction and internal fixation. Recently total elbow replacement (TER) had gained popularity for the treatment of comminuted elbow trauma when other treatment options are not possible. Methods: Since 2007-2013 we treated 18 patients with TER due to comminuted distal humeral fractures. We used the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scoring system (DASH) to evaluate the patient’s satisfaction. In addition, we evaluated the elbow range of motion and collateral stability. Results and Conclusions: Functional range of motion was achieved with high patient’s satisfaction. Based on the results, we conclude that TER is a reasonable option for complex elbow fractures when open reduction and internal fixation is not suitable.


Journal: Open Journal of Orthopedics
DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2017.711034 (PDF)
Paper Id: 80176 (metadata)

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Variational Formulations Yielding High-Order Finite-Element Solutions in Smooth Domains without Curved Elements

Author: Vitoriano Ruas

One of the reasons for the great success of the finite element method is its versatility to deal with different types of geometries. This is particularly true of problems posed in curved domains. Nevertheless it is well-known that, for standard variational formulations, the optimal approximation properties known to hold for polytopic domains are lost, if meshes consisting of ordinary elements are still used in the case of curved domains. That is why method’s isoparametric version for meshes consisting of curved triangles or tetrahedra has been widely employed, especially in case Dirichlet boundary conditions are prescribed all over a curved boundary. However, besides geometric inconveniences, the isoparametric technique helplessly requires the manipulation of rational functions and the use of numerical integration. In this work we consider a simple alternative that bypasses these drawbacks, without eroding qualitative approximation properties. More specifically we work with a variational formulation leading to high order finite element methods based only on polynomial algebra, since they do not require the use of curved elements. Application of the new approach to Lagrange methods of arbitrary order illustrates its potential to take the best advantage of finite-element discretizations in the solution of wide classes of problems posed in curved domains.


Journal: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics
DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2017.511174 (PDF)
Paper Id: 80160 (metadata)

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Elderly Population Projection and Their Health Expenditure Prospects in Japan

Author: Tetsuo Fukawa

By using a dynamic micro-simulation model named INAHSIM-II, we conducted a population-household projection in Japan (INAHSIM 2017) for the period of 2015-2065. Due to rapid aging of the population, the distribution of the elderly (65 years old or older) by dependency level has a profound impact on health expenditure (namely medical expenditure and long-term care expenditure) of the elderly. In this paper, we estimated health expenditure of the elderly in 2025-2065, using the results of the projection of the elderly by dependency level.


Journal: Modern Economy
DOI: 10.4236/me.2017.811085 (PDF)
Paper Id: 80147 (metadata)

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Laser-Based Fabrication of Nanofoam inside a Hollow Capillary

Authors: Alexander F. Courtier, James A. Grant-Jacob, Rand Ismaeel, Daniel J. Heath, Gilberto Brambilla, William J. Stewart, Robert W. Eason, Ben Mills

Highly porous nanofoam can be fabricated via multiphoton ablation of a material by raster-scanning femtosecond laser pulses over the material surface. Here, we show the fabrication of nanofoam on the inside surface of a hollow silica capillary that has an inner and outer diameter of 640 and 700 μm respectively. A thin layer of nanofoam was fabricated over ~70% of the inner surface of the capillary. Ray-tracing simulations were used to determine the positional corrections required to account for refraction on the curved surface and also to explain the inability to fabricate nanofoam on the side walls of the capillary.


Journal: Materials Sciences and Applications
DOI: 10.4236/msa.2017.812060 (PDF)
Paper Id: 80130 (metadata)

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Understanding the Experiences of Anxiety in Community Dwelling Older Adults—Understanding Anxiety in Older Adults

AuthorsL Margaret H. Roberts, Paul L. Merrick, Richard B. Fletcher, Kirsty Furness

Objectives: Anxiety is commonly reported as being experienced by older adult patients. However most of the theories on anxiety in older adults are developed from clinical measures rather than open-ended questionnaires. Consequently, little is known about the day to day experiences of anxiety in the lives of older adults, and the functional impairment that may result. Method: Community dwelling older adults (n = 135) were administered an open-ended questionnaire eliciting their experiences of anxiety using a cognitive behavioural framework. Directed content analysis was applied to discover the shared experiences of anxiety in older adults. Results: Although 64% of older adults reported avoidance behaviour that appeared anxiety driven, they generally denied experiencing anxiety themselves. Thought content and processes were idiosyncratic however commonalities were thinking positively (34%), problem solving (31%), rumination (31%) and difficulty concentrating (19%). A broad range of physical symptoms including those that may relate to medical conditions and depression were reported as resulting from anxiety, most commonly headaches (26%) and gastrointestinal disturbances (26%). Conclusion: Anxiety driven behaviours were common and appeared to negatively impact their quality of life through avoidance behaviours. Older adults may benefit from education to destigmatise the experiences of anxiety and improve reporting of functional impairment due to anxiety.


Journal: Open Journal of Nursing
DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2017.711087 (PDF)
Paper Id: 80127 (metadata)

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Predicting Optimal Trading Actions Using a Genetic Algorithm and Ensemble Method

Author: Kazuma Kuroda

Machine learning has been applied to the foreign exchange market for algorithmic trading. However, the selection of trading algorithms is a difficult problem. In this work, an approach that combines trading agents is designed. In the proposed approach, an artificial neural network is used to predict the optimum actions of each agent for USD/JPY currency pairs. The agents are trained using a genetic algorithm and are then combined using an ensemble method. We compare the performance of the combined agent to the average performance of many agents. Simulation results show that the total return is better when the combined agent is used.


Journal: Intelligent Information Management
DOI: 10.4236/iim.2017.96012 (PDF)
Paper Id: 80106 (metadata)

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Analysis of Recent Cases of Postbulbar Duodenal Ulcer in Japan

Authors: Tateki Yamane, Akira Umeda, Hitoshi Shimao

Although the incidence of postbulbar duodenal ulcers is low, many complications occur, such as hemorrhage, stenosis and perforation, and there are many points to be paid attention to with regard to its pathology. A high acid level has been pointed out as a cause, but this is not conclusive, and its association with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is also unclear. We investigated chronic cases excluding acute cases such as acute duodenal mucosal lesion we encountered between 2001 and 2015. Five cases corresponded, accounting for 1.4% of all chronic duodenal ulcer cases, and there were more male patients (four patients were male), as previously reported. All cases were solitary punched-out ulcer on the medial side near the superior duodenal flexure, and many complications were observed such as melena in all patients, narrowing in 2, and penetration in 1. No specific pathology, such as Crohn’s disease, vasculitis, or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, was noted, no patient was previously medicated with NSAIDs or low dose aspirin, and 3 patients were infected with Hp. All cases were healed by proton pump inhibitor administration or gastric acid secretion-suppressing treatment with selective proximal vagotomy. Recurrence after Hp eradication occurred in all of the 3 Hp-infected patients, suggesting that involvement of Hp in the cause of disease is unlikely.


Journal: Open Journal of Gastroenterology
DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2017.710028 (PDF)
Paper Id: 80022 (metadata)

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