The Non-Smooth Problem of Wheel Motion

Authors: Wiesław Grzesikiewicz, Artur Zbiciak

Planar motion of a non-deformable wheel under the action of non-ideal unilateral constraints is considered. The mathematical description of this phenomenon has a form of a non-smooth initial value problem. The non-smoothness of this problem means that its solution is determined by an absolutely continuous function having a discontinuous first derivative. For this reason, a collision problem describing abrupt changes of velocity has been formulated next to the equations of motion specifying the acceleration. The non-idealness of constraints means that the constraint reaction force includes also a component resulting from the friction between the wheel and the constraints. Differential equations specifying acceleration of the wheel making contact with the constraints and algebraic equations for determining the changes in the wheel’s velocity at the moment of collision have been formulated in the paper. The principal task in these formulations is to determine the reaction forces of the considered constraints. This task is specified by the relationships between acceleration and the constraint reaction force components. In the description of the collision, these relations refer to the post-collision velocities and reaction force impulses. For determining an approximate solution of the formulated wheel motion problem, an original numerical method and a computer program for wheel motion simulation have been developed. Selected results illustrating the changes in displacements and velocity have been presented.


Journal: Advances in Pure Mathematics
DOI: 10.4236/apm.2020.1011041(PDF)
Paper Id: 104450 (metadata)

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Development of Genetic Engineering Tools for p75ngfr Methylation and Expression Modulation

Authors: D. A. Lanshakov, E. V. Sukhareva

Neurotrophic factors, as well as their receptors are key players in the formation and development of the central nervous system. Like the sculptor’s incisor, they form the neural networks and circuits of the future organism. The neurotrophic growth factor receptor p75ngfr interacts with sortilin, serves as a receptor for proform of neurotrophic factors and exhibits a proapoptotic effect in developing neurons—dorsal root ganglia neurons and brainstem norepinephrine neurons. p75ngfr is highly expressed in Locus Coeruleus norepinephrine neurons. Therefore, an important task for developing further methods of CNS gene therapy is the development of tools and molecular methods for suppressing p75ngfr expression in norepinephrine neurons. For this purpose, we’ve developed improved dCas9 vectors with Suntag system to suppress gene expression and enhance methylation of CpG islands. We used 10 times repetitive GCN peptide that were fused to dCas9. Single chain antibody against GCN peptide was fused to KRAB repressor or Dnmt3a catalytic domain. Expression specificity was achieved by using a promoter consisting of 8 repeated phox2a/2b binding sites. In this work, we’ve tested a set of guide RNAs targeting p75ngfr cpg island in the promoter. Usage of Suntag system led us to the conclusion that topological orientation and length of the final complex could influence on p75ngfr antisense transcript expression, and that sequence was established in the rat P3 brainstem.


Journal: Journal of Biosciences and Medicines
DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2020.811018

Paper Id: 104361 (metadata)

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Theoretical Study of Coupling Mechanism between FBG and Shock Waves of Rock Burst

Authors: Shiming Wei, Zesheng Zhang, Yao Wang

To achieve the monitor of rock burst in coal mine with fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing, the coupling mechanism between FBG and shock waves was theoretically analyzed. Based on Housner’s random shock model, the coupling mechanism between shock waves and FBG was theoretically analyzed. The result shows that the wave will change the period Ʌ and effective refractive index n of FBG, and further affect the initial wavelength value. The amplitude, phase and frequency of shock wave are directly related to the wavelength drifts of FBG. The transmitting velocity of shock wave in rock is affected by lithologic characteristics. The Elastic modulus, density and Poisson’s ratio of rock influence the initial wavelength value of FBG. This study provided a theoretical basis and practical application guidance for coal or rock burst monitoring with FBG sensing.


Journal: World Journal of Engineering and Technology
DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2020.84057(PDF)
Paper Id: 104354 (metadata)

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Design of a Methane Monitoring System for Landfill and Duct Emissions

Authors: Federico Hahn, Gaudencio Grande

Methane is released from waste disposal areas as a result from anaerobic decay of food. Methane causes more greenhouse effects than carbon dioxide so a methane monitoring system is required to warn its release from gas emitting environments. The low explosive limit of methane is 5% in ambient air, so gas leakage is dangerous and can produce explosions. An entire head monitoring system was built around a MQ-4 methane gas sensor as it is cheap and reliable. The design proves to be flexible enough as it can measure CH4 emissions in ducts, CH4 in landfills at different depths and even in cattle barns. The measuring system head consists of a suction pump, solenoids, and a methane sensor. Measurements are taken 13 seconds after methane gas sucking. A timing of 100 seconds is required for purging the chamber before the second solenoid is turned-on. Devices temperature during operation was sampled with a thermal Flir-One camera and solenoid coil temperature was of 24.9˚C after a continuous operation of 30 seconds. As hoses for emission sampling become larger time for sampling increases as well as energy consumption.


Journal: Natural Resources
DOI: 10.4236/nr.2020.1111030(PDF)
Paper Id: 104296 (metadata)

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Oxytetracycline Water Contamination Treated with Biocarbon TiO2 and Solar Photodecomposition

Authors: Nilce Ortiz, Izabela Rodrigues Cerqueira Lima Azevedo, Marília Guerino Vieira, Fernanda Maichin, Lucia Nascimento

Reliable data of antibiotic use and environmental discharge as veterinary medicine are essential to help countries raise awareness of the appropriate use, control, and correct water release. The first approach is to change the regulatory framework based on consuming information, use policy, and discharge laws. The important research contribution is a novel water treatment process to treat, remove, and reduce antibiotic concentration in discharged water, mainly those used in the animal protein industry. The low particle biochar added during the titanium isopropoxide hydrolysis reduces the titanium dioxide (TiO2) agglomerates and promotes the adsorption surface process. Such improved catalyst material enhances the solar decomposition efficiency to 93% from original oxytetracycline with better correspondence with the Elovich kinetics, intraparticle diffusion, R-P isotherm, and Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.


Journal: Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment
DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2020.94022(PDF)
Paper Id: 104260 (metadata)

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Text Rank for Domain Specific Using Field Association Words

Authors: Omnia G. El Barbary, El Sayed Atlam

Text Rank is a popular tool for obtaining words or phrases that are important for many Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. This paper presents a practical approach for Text Rank domain specific using Field Association (FA) words. We present the keyphrase separation technique not for a single document, although for a particular domain. The former builds a specific domain field. The second collects a list of ideal FA terms and compounds FA terms from the specific domain that are considered to be contender keyword phrases. Therefore, we combine two-word node weights and field tree relationships into a new approach to generate keyphrases from a particular domain. Studies using the changed approach to extract key phrases demonstrate that the latest techniques including FA terms are stronger than the others that use normal words and its precise words reach 90%.


Journal: Journal of Computer and Communications
DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2020.811005(PDF)
Paper Id: 104225 (metadata)

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Illyrian Personal Anthroponyms

Authors: Giancarlo T. Tomezzoli, Rainhardt S. Stein

This article follows a previous publication dedicated to Venetic personal anthroponyms. In the present article, we investigate Illyrian personal anthroponyms from the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, a continuously updated Latin inscription catalogue covering the Roman Empire period and its provinces. The Illyrian anthroponyms appear deeply latinised and graecised and the meaning of their roots was identified by comparing each one of them with corresponding lexemes in the present surviving Slavic languages. The result is that the Illyrian personal anthroponyms having Slavic roots is 45.93%, which permits to estimate that during the Roman Empire period, i.e. about five cen., roughly 46% of the Illyrian population had Slavic ascendancies. This highlights that Slavs were already present in areas incorporated by the Roman Empire well before the VII cen. A.D. the date, according to the generally accepted theory, of the Slav late arrival in Europe. The logical consequence is that this theory is wrong and should be rejected.


Journal: Archaeological Discovery
DOI: 10.4236/ad.2021.91001(PDF)
Paper Id: 104217 (metadata)

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Operationalized Multi-Stakeholder Strategic Road-Mapping for Small-to-Medium Nonprofit Organizations

18Authors: Dan Tenney, Nasir Jamil Sheikh

Long-term strategic planning is not typical among small-to-medium nonprofit organizations (SMNOs), and their focus tends to be towards tactical mission priorities. This prioritization is due to limited resources and capabilities, although a strategic plan is still considered important for the nonprofit social enterprise’s sustained viability. This research develops a visual strategic roadmap (SRM) model that could be the basis for a long-term strategy for such nonprofits. This roadmap model includes lanes that represent multiple stakeholder perspectives and may be used to identify the policies and procedures required to achieve the long-term vision. Road-mapping fulfills a strategic planning need for nonprofit organizations, especially SMNOs, which in most cases, is absent. The perspectives covered are Social, Technical, Economic, Environmental, and Political (STEEP). A strategic roadmap model is validated using expert judgments and by the case study of a small-to-medium mental health nonprofit organization agency located in Southeastern Connecticut. The SRM validation revealed a model that is easy to visualize, and future work will verify its effectiveness.


Journal: Open Journal of Business and Management
DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2020.86159(PDF)
Paper Id: 104181 (metadata)

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Numerical Simulation of Modified Kortweg-de Vries Equation by Linearized Implicit Schemes

Authors: M. S. Ismail, Fakhirah Alotaibi

In this paper, we are going to derive four numerical methods for solving the Modified Kortweg-de Vries (MKdV) equation using fourth Pade approximation for space direction and Crank Nicolson in the time direction. Two nonlinear schemes and two linearized schemes are presented. All resulting schemes will be analyzed for accuracy and stability. The exact solution and the conserved quantities are used to highlight the efficiency and the robustness of the proposed schemes. Interaction of two and three solitons will be also conducted. The numerical results show that the interaction behavior is elastic and the conserved quantities are conserved exactly, and this is a good indication of the reliability of the schemes which we derived. A comparison with some existing is presented as well.


Journal: Applied Mathematics
DOI: 10.4236/am.2020.1111077(PDF)
Paper Id: 104151 (metadata)

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Advanced Undifferentiated Endometrial Carcinoma with No Evidence of Disease after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: A Case Report

Authors: Cassandra L. Presti, Payam Katebi Kashi, Christopher M. Tarney, Ruchi Garg

Background: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is used in gynecologic malignancies as primary treatment for advanced disease and has demonstrated improvement in survival rates. However, the data for use in endometrial cancer is limited. Case: This is a case of stage IV endometrial undifferentiated carcinoma with complete response to four cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (carboplatin/paclitaxel) and no evidence of disease during the interval debulking surgery (robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy with bilateral salpingoophorectomy, pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection, and cystoscopy). Conclusion: Complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to interval debulking surgery is only reported in a limited number of cases, and even less common in advanced stage high-grade endometrial cancers. The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy may reduce tumor burden, increase opportunities for optimal debulking, and have an impact on survival. Further research is needed to understand the potential for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in these patients.


Journal: Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2020.10110141(PDF)
Paper Id: 104122 (metadata)

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