Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Coffee Accessions in Rwanda and Its Implication for Coffee Breeding

Authors: B. P. Muvunyi, P. Y. K. Sallah, L. Dusengemungu, Jiyu Zhang

ABSTRACT
Genetic variation is important in breeding programs because it determines the amount of gain from selection. This study was conducted to determine the magnitude of genetic diversity in coffee (Coffea Arabica L.) accessions for developing superior cultivars in Rwanda. Twenty-one coffee accessions established in 1990 in an un-replicated field experiment at the Rubona Experimental Station of the Rwanda Agriculture Board (RAB) located in the mid-altitude zone of Rwanda, were used in the study. Data were recorded on three randomly selected trees on eight quantitative morphological traits in each accession in 2013. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated highly significant (p < 0.01) differences among the accessions for number of primary branches, number of leaves per branch, number of cherries per internode and % coffee leaf rust disease rating; and significant (p < 0.05) for yield, but not for internode length, weight of 100 cherries, and number of internodes per branch. Multivariate analysis showed that the first three principal components contributed cumulatively to 78.3% of the total variation. The PCA biplot grouped all the accessions into three different clusters and one singleton. The first and second PCs accounted for 43% and 21%, respectively. Cluster I and II grouped accessions with valuable quantitative agronomic traits while accessions in cluster III exhibited poor agronomic performance. The highest inter cluster distance of 475 was observed between cluster I and II, and the highest intra-cluster distance (62) was in cluster II. The phenotypic markers provided a useful measure of genetic distances among the coffee accessions and identified potential donors for future breeding efforts.

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Journal: American Journal of Plant Sciences
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.810167 (PDF)
Paper Id: 79120 (metadata)

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Combination of Law-Governing and Virtue-Governing: The Perspective of Social Governance Centering on Zichan

Author: Xiuli Yang

ABSTRACT
This paper intends to closely examine the abundant historical data on the theory and practice of Zichan’s social governance, which were recorded in The Commentary of Zuo. For example: Zichan thought the minister who had good reputation, morality and integrity can make people submit through clemency. Propriety is the law of heaven, the root of earth, and the dependence of people. Zichan cast the penal code, separated the law from traditional rituals, and described severity as fire which is fierce and violent. People feared it, but few died from it. This can be summarized as Law-governing and Virtue-governing. The author used the typical characteristics of social transition in the Spring and Autumn Period, which is a special social transformation from slavery society to feudal society. During that period, the feature of social system is rite disintegration and has a transition from the God to man. It will be argued that based on the social governance which was elaborated by Zichan, and the effects recorded in The Commentary of Zuo, the author considers that the collection and research articles pertaining to this part of the literature can provide materials and ideas of relevance for research on social governance in China, especially the Chinese aristocracy in the Pre-Qin dynasty. The effective forms of governance at that time could enrich the theoretical resources for contemporary China, and may have relevance for scholarly research in political philosophy in other cultures.

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Journal: Advances in Applied Sociology
DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2017.79021 (PDF)
Paper Id: 79093 (metadata)

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Deposition and Characterization of Multilayer DLC/BN Films

Authors: Honei Chin, Chavin Jongwannasiri, Shuichi Watanabe

ABSTRACT
In this article, the results obtained from a study on multilayer diamond-like carbon and boron nitride (DLC/BN) films are reported. The microstructure, atomic concentration, hardness and friction coefficient of the films were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, auger electron microscopy, nano-indentation measurements and ball-on-disk friction testing. The effects of bilayer thickness and substrate bias on film growth were investigated. All multilayer films showed alternate DLC and BN layers, except the 2- and 4-nm bilayer of multilayer DLC/BN films deposited without substrate bias. Although the layers were very thin, each layer was distinguishable. This was confirmed by the use of TEM imaging and AES measurements. The hardness values of all the multilayer films were lower than those measured for the monolayer DLC and BN films. However, the hardness can be altered with a change in the bilayer thickness. Furthermore, in the case of the films deposited with substrate bias, multilayer DLC/BN films showed an improvement in wear resistance compared to monolayer DLC and BN films. Thus, the deposition of multilayer DLC/BN films can be considered to be beneficial in prolonging the service life of the surface.

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Journal: Materials Sciences and Applications
DOI: 10.4236/msa.2017.810053 (PDF)
Paper Id: 79054 (metadata)

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Hydrothermal Carbonization of Deciduous Biomass (Alnus incana) and Pelletization Prospects

Authors: Raghu Kc, Indu Babu, Sara Alatalo, Jarno Föhr, Tapio Ranta, Ismo Tiihonen

ABSTRACT
Thermal treatment of biomass has been attracting attention for a decade or so, especially torrefaction. However, for the past few years, wet pyrolysis, also known as hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), has been getting some attention. Hydrothermal carbonization is a thermal treatment of biomass in the presence of water in a temperature range of 180°C – 260°C. This method of treating biomass has some benefits which others do not, such as it can handle extremely wet biomass. However, treating biomass may not be enough for practical use. It may need to be transported and stored. Thus, this study explored the idea of pelletizing the HTC biomass. The mechanical strength of the HTC pellets was found to be 93%, whereas, higher heating value (HHV) (dry basis) was found to be 4% higher than the corresponding white pellets. The initial results with some limited parameters indicated that it would be possible to pelletize without binder. However, extensive research on energy balance and economic assessment would be necessary to achieve economic feasibility.

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Journal: Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems
DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2017.73010 (PDF)
Paper Id: 79017 (metadata)

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Two-Dimensional Mechanism Design and Implementability by an Indirect Mechanism

Author: Naoki Kojima

ABSTRACT
This paper studies the problem on two-dimensional mechanism design where the buyer’s taste and budget are his private information. The paper investigates the problem by the method of dimension-reduction, i.e., by focusing only on the buyer’s budget and constructing an indirect mechanism: function of one variable, the buyer’s budget. It is an approach quite antipodal to that by Kojima [1] where he focused on the buyer’s taste instead of his budget. It is shown that the seller does not lose any money by adopting the indirect mechanism of this paper. In other words, the seller’s revenue-maximizing direct mechanism is implemented by such an indirect mechanism.

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Journal: Theoretical Economics Letters
DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.76107 (PDF)
Paper Id: 78992 (metadata)

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Application of Renewal Gray GM (1,1) Model to Prediction of Landslide Deformation

Author: Zhaoyang Wang

ABSTRACT
The gray renewal GM (1,1) landslide prediction model was established by improving the gray model. Based on the established model, the author has made prediction of landslide deformation to the Xiangjiapo landslide and the Lianziya dangerous rock body. The results show that the gray renewal GM (1,1) model can supplement the new information in time and remove the old information which reduces the meaning of the information because of time lapse. Therefore, the model is closer to reality.

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Journal: Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection
DOI: 10.4236/gep.2017.59011 (PDF)
Paper Id: 78974 (metadata)

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ICRC Bacillus a Vaccine Candidate Strain (C-44) Is Coated with Human IgG

Authors: A. R. Yadav, K. K. Mohanty, U. Sengupta

ABSTRACT
Indian Cancer Research Centre (ICRC) bacillus strain (C-44), a candidate vaccine against leprosy is cultured in vitro in Dubos medium enriched with amino acids and human serum. The study was conducted to find out whether ICRC bacilli obtained from these cultures are coated with anti mycobacterial antibody. Anti-ICRC antibody raised by intradermal inoculation of sonicated ICRC bacilli in rabbits reacted with both human immunoglobulin G (IgG) and antigens of ICRC. Further, ICRC bacilli could also be fluoresced directly with FITC labelled anti human IgG. Positive fluorescence of ICRC could be abolished by digestion of human IgG with trypsin and carbon tetrachloride (CCL4). It is concluded that ICRC bacilli present in the vaccine are coated with human IgG.

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Journal: Open Journal of Immunology
DOI: 10.4236/oji.2017.73004 (PDF)
Paper Id: 78954 (metadata)

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High Field MRI in Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT)

Authors: Cherif Mohamadou Aidara, Caroline Magne, Philomene Kouna,
Gaelle Ebinda Mipinda, Abdoulaye Dione Diop, Abdoulaye Ndoye Diop, Sokhna Ba

ABSTRACT
Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping thickness is a forest and rural disease; where agriculture is the main activity. It is a chronic and lethal disease without treatment. HAT is caused by two parasites; Trypanosoma Brucei Gambiense (gTB) and Trypanosoma Brucei Rhodesiense (rTB) transmitted to humans by the tsetse fly. It is endemic condition in Africa between the 15° north latitude and the 20° south latitude. It is reported outside this area in travelers who stayed in endemic zone. Infection by gTB is wider and more frequent (98%) than that by rTB (2%). The Democratic Republic of Congo is the most affected country with more than 75% of reported cases. The geographical distribution is not homogeneous. There are more affected regions in a zone called “foci” which represents areas favorable to the development of the vector. Continue reading

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A Review on Industrial Applications of Z-Source Inverter

Authors: Nimrah Saeed, Anas Ibrar, Aimen Saeed

ABSTRACT
Nowadays, Z-source inverters (ZSI) are one of the most emerging topologies in field of power electronics. This paper deals with brief review of Z-source inverter, comprehensive study of its various topologies and significance of ZSI in modern industry. Different PWM techniques are used to obtain wider modulation range and easier real time implementation. This paper provides a systematic reference for future scientists for further development and advancement of ZSI.

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Journal: Journal of Power and Energy Engineering
DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2017.59002 (PDF)
Paper Id: 78935 (metadata)

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Effects of Biochar on the Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Sugarcane Residues Applied to Soils

Authors: Thalita Fernanda Abbruzzini, Mariana Delgado Oliveira Zenero,
Pedro Avelino Maia de Andrade, Fernando Dini Andreote, Julio Campo,
Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri

ABSTRACT
The sugar and bioethanol industry generate large amounts of filter cake and vinasse, residues that are applied to sugarcane fields as conditioners and organic fertilizers. However, these may be significant sources of greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere. This study assessed the impact of sugarcane straw biochar on the emissions of CO2, CH4and N2O promoted by filter cake and vinasse applied to soil, and its effects on the chemical properties and bacterial communities of a Typic Hapludox and a Quartzipsamment. A laboratory incubation was conducted for 100 days with both soils under five treatments: vinasse and filter cake amendment (FV), plus biochar at 10 (FV + B10), 20 (FV + B20) and 50 (FV + B50) Mg·ha-1, and a control. Soil pH, available P and exchangeable base contents increased with biochar added to sandy soil. Mineral N decreased with biochar addition to both soils. The FV treatment increased CO2 emissions by 5-fold and 2.4-fold in sandy and clayey soils, respectively, compared to the control. Moreover, FV +B10 increased CO2 emissions by 4% and 6.4% in sandy and clayey soils, respectively, compared to FV. Continue reading

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