Homes or Just Houses: The Housing Needs of Female-Headed Households in Egypt

Authors: Reem Hamad, Ahmed S. Abd Elrahman, Ayat Ismail

With the drastic rise in divorce rates in Egypt in the last few decades, targeting female-headed households as new housing segment is becoming increasingly crucial. Female-headed households are categorized as part of the housing vulnerable groups supported by the government. The housing needs, preferences and the market navigation patterns of this group are the study matter of this paper. While this group shares similarities in the housing needs with the two-parent families there are defined differences in the housing presences and market navigation patterns of the two groups. The paper also sheds the light on how the social characteristics of the female-headed households determine the housing problems they face with the current market offerings. Then, it outlines a typology of the housing preferred by the female heads, with the aim of generating recommendations that would help create more inclusive and satisfactory housing market offerings tailored for them. The proximity of the workplace to the housing unit in addition to the presence of an active community center within the neighborhoods was on top of their housing demands.


Journal: Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research
DOI: 10.4236/jbcpr.2018.63010 (PDF)
Paper Id: 87328 (metadata)

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Improved Visualization of the Anterior Thalamic Radiation in Bipolar Disorder by Diffusion Tensor Tractography

Authors: Richi Niida1, Akihiko Uechi, Akira Niida, Hiroshi Matsuda, Bun Yamagata, Masaru Mimura

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a method for noninvasively measuring and imaging the diffusion of water molecules using MRI. Diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) can be used to presume macroscopic nerve fascicle distribution by determining, based on information obtained by DTI, whether the diffusion anisotropy vectors of adjacent voxels are continuous or not. We prepared a DTT map of the cerebral white matter nerve fascicles and investigated its usefulness for differentiation between Alzheimer’s disease and bipolar disorder (BD), a major depressive disorder, based on the nerve fiber depiction, in addition to the fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient values. We encountered two cases of BD in which the DTT image of the anterior thalamic radiation (ATR) improved following effective treatment with lamotrigine. Lamotrigine increases the synaptic strength due to its effect of promoting the traffic of the α-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor on the neuronal membrane. Downregulation of postsynaptic AMPA receptor expression can reportedly be observed during depressive episodes in BD. We consider that visualization of improvement of the ATR in response to treatment with lamotrigine (related to its pharmacological effect on the AMPA receptor) is valuable, as it suggests reversibility of the damage of the nerve fibers in this disease condition.


Journal: Case Reports in Clinical Medicine
DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2018.79044 (PDF)
Paper Id: 87310 (metadata)

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Air Quality Impact of Biomass Co-Firing with Coal at a Power Plant in the Greater Houston Area

Authors: Iqbal Hossan, Venkata Sai Vamsi Botlaguduru, Hongbo Du, Raghava Rao Kommalapati, Ziaul Huque

The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area of Texas is a moderate nonattainment region for ozone, and has a history of severe summer ozone episodes. W. A. Parish power plant (WAP) located in the greater Houston area is the largest coal and natural gas based electricity generating unit (EGU) in Texas. Forest residue is an abundant renewable resource, and can be used to offset coal usage at EGUs. This study evaluates the impact of co-firing 5%, 10%, and 15% (energy-basis) of forest residue at WAP on the air quality of the HGB area. Photochemical modeling with Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) was conducted to investigate the air quality at three air quality monitoring sites (C696, C53, C556) in the HGB area, under two source scenarios (all-sources, point + biogenic sources). Significant reduction of SO2 and O3 was observed for 10% and 15% co-firing ratios at monitoring station (C696) close to WAP. The maximum reduction of ozone observed for 15% co-firing is 4.7% and 6.3% for all-sources and point + biogenic sources scenarios respectively. The reduction in other criteria air pollutants is not significant at all locations. The overall results from this study indicate that biomass co-firing at WAP would not lead to a significant reduction in ozone concentrations in the region during periods of peak ozone.


Journal: Open Journal of Air Pollution
DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2018.73013 (PDF)
Paper Id: 87275 (metadata)

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An Improved Method for Fractionation of Small Quantities of Lettuce Latex

Authors: Thomas A. McKeon, Jenny Brichta

While large quantities of latex can be handled either by standard extraction techniques such as Soxhlet extraction or accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), smaller samples on the order of 0.3 – 0.5 g require handling on a microscale. We collected latex from lettuce plants in microcentrifuge tubes and, after drying under vacuum, resuspended the dried sample in acetone by holding in an ultrasonic cleaner. The resulting fine suspension was readily extracted with acetone and toluene to provide fractions representing the resin and rubber content of the latex. Using this approach, we compared latex from stems of bolting lettuce and from the floral stem of lettuce plants. While both types of stems contained a similar percentage of resin, the rubber content of the bolting stems exceeded that of the floral stems.


Journal: American Journal of Plant Sciences
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.910145 (PDF)
Paper Id: 87255 (metadata)

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Island Activities Detected by VIIRS and Validation with AIS

Authors: Ichio Asanuma, Daisuke Hasegawa, Takashi Yamaguchi, Jong Geol Park, Kenneth James Mackin

A possibility to monitor the reclamation activities by remote sensing was discussed. The lights observed in the night time by Day Night Band (DNB) of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), ocean color observed in the day time by visible bands of VIIRS were the tools to monitor the surface activities, and the Automated Information System (AIS) was used to verify the types and number of vessels associated with the reclamation activities. The lights as the radiance from the surface were monitored by the object based analysis, where the object was defined as a radius of 5 km from the center of the Mischief Reef in the South China Sea (SCS). The time history of surface lights exhibited the increase of the radiance from January to May 2015 and the radiance was kept in the certain level to December 2016 with some variations. The ocean color, chlorophyll-a concentration as a proxy of sediments, showed an increase from February to June 2015 and returned to a low concentration in August 2015. According to the historical data of AIS, the number of dredgers has increased from February to August 2015 and the maximum number of dredgers was recorded in June 2015. The timing of increase of lights from surface, increase of chlorophyll-a concentration, and increase of number of vessels are consistent.


Journal: Advances in Remote Sensing
DOI: 10.4236/ars.2018.73012 (PDF)
Paper Id: 87209 (metadata)

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Play and Preschool Children Who Are Deaf: A Review of the Literature

Author: Millicent Musyoka

The purpose of this study was to provide a narrative review of the literature of studies on deaf children play. Electronic searches of databases including EBSCOhost, ERIC, Deaf Education related journals, and Google Scholar were undertaken using terms such as deaf play, deaf play and literacy, deaf play and school and deaf play and language, deaf play and cognition. Relevant articles on the deaf children play extracted were synthesized narratively. The results of the analysis were interpreted using descriptive analysis, percentages, frequencies and emerging themes. The data showed most of the studies focused on comparing deaf children play behaviors to those of the hearing peers. Findings on deaf children social and cognitive play were inconsistent. Several issues in this analysis point to implications for future research, teacher preparation and teacher intentionality in the implementation of play in early childhood education (ECE) classrooms.


Journal: Creative Education
DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.912130 (PDF)
Paper Id: 87198 (metadata)

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An Overview of Informal Settlement Upgrading Strategies in Kabul City and the Need for an Integrated Multi-Sector Upgrading Model

Authors: Bashir Ahmad Amiri, Nsenda Lukumwena

The developing economies are experiencing an unprecedented rate of urbanization, mainly in the poor urban areas as shown through the sprawling of slums and informal settlements of several cities in the world. This is also the case of Kabul, the capital and primate city of Afghanistan where around 82% of the people live in what is considered to be informal. Various interventions, from physical upgrading to urban renewal have been undertaken by the government and international organizations but none of them has succeeded to solve the rapid growth of informal settlements. Given the above, the magnitude of the urbanization and the complexity of informal settlements, this paper suggests the use of an integrated multi-sector upgrading as a reactive and proactive upgrading strategy. The paper analyzes the informal settlements formation and the conventional upgrading strategies used in Kabul city. This will help to identify dominant practices and finally rationalize them. For this purpose, Hothkhel has been selected as the case study. As a result, it has been found that the areas occupied by informal settlements have not been built to their respective full capacity. This implies that there is still room for additional buildable volume likely to lead to the preservation of available agricultural land. The result also indicates that the integrated multi-sector upgrading has the scale-up potential to increase the reach of beneficiaries and to ensure an inclusive and efficient urbanization.


Journal: Current Urban Studies
DOI: 10.4236/cus.2018.63019 (PDF)
Paper Id: 87168 (metadata)

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Chitin Based Fuel Cell and Its Proton Conductivity

Authors: Takashi Kawabata, Yasumitsu Matsuo

We have fabricated a fuel cell based on the tissue-derived biomaterial “chitin”, and investigated its proton conductivity. It was found that chitin becomes the electrolyte of the fuel cell in the humidified condition, and power density of the fuel cell using chitin electrolyte becomes typically 1.35 mW/cm2 at the 100% relative humidity. This result is the first result showing that the polysaccharide obtained from nature becomes the fuel cell electrolyte. Moreover, this result indicates that chitin is proton conductor in the humidified condition. In the chitin sheet plane, proton conductivity in chitin is observed approximately 0.1 S/m. Further, it was also found that chitin has the anisotropic proton conductivity. The proton conductivity along the chitin fiber direction is higher than that perpendicular to the chitin fiber direction. From these results, it is deduced that the formation of water bridges accompanied by hydration plays an important role in the appearance of proton conductivity in chitin.


Journal: Materials Sciences and Applications
DOI: 10.4236/msa.2018.910056 (PDF)
Paper Id: 87150 (metadata)

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Sexual Dimorphism in the Mandible Shape of Neospondylis upiformis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

Authors: Christian Hébert, Yves Dubuc

Sexes of adult Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) are usually discriminated by the greater length of male antennae. However, in Spondylidinae, adult antennae are short and the difference between sexes is negligible and difficult to appraise. Only two species belong to this subfamily in North America, one of these being Neospondylis upiformis (Mannerheim), a species rarely caught in eastern North America. Unexpectedly, we collected numerous specimens of Neospondylis upiformis on Anticosti Island, Quebec, which appears as a hotspot for this species in eastern Canada. We show that sexual dimorphism in the mandible shape of N. upiformis (Mannerheim) can be used to discriminate sexes. Females have robust mandibles with a sharp cutting inner edge while males have thin mandibles and a well-rounded inner edge. There was no overlap between sexes in all measures done on mandibles, showing that mandible shape was a reliable criterion for sexing N. upiformis. We also tested previously reported criteria using antennae, as well as other characteristics such as body size, and show that they can hardly discriminate between sexes in N. upiformis. We also present illustrations of male and female genitalia, which is rarely available for Cerambycidae.


Journal: Advances in Entomology
DOI: 10.4236/ae.2018.64018 (PDF)
Paper Id: 87131 (metadata)

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Development of a Measurement Software for the Characterization of WORM Devices for Novel Memory Storage Applications

Authors: Mirko Congiu, Miguel H. Boratto, Paride Pica, Carlos F. O. Graeff

We hereby propose a software solution to perform high quality electrical measurements for the characterization of WORM (write-once read many), a new generation memory device which is being intensively studied for non-volatile data storage. The as-proposed software is completely based on .NET framework and sample C# code. The paper performed a relevant measurement based on this software. Working WORM devices, based on a polymeric matrix embedded with gold and copper sulfide nanoparticles, have been used for test measurements. The aim of this paper is to show the main steps to develop a fully working measurement software without using any expensive dedicated software.


Journal: Journal of Computer and Communications
DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2018.69001 (PDF)
Paper Id: 87095 (metadata)

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