The Geography as a Regulator of Genetic Flow and Genetic Structure in Andorra

Authors: Elena Campoy, Antonio González-Martín

The Principality of Andorra is one of the smallest states in Europe. Traditionally its economy has been based on the agriculture and cattle ranch although in the last decades it has developed an important tourist activity that has become a collector of emigrants. The origin of marriage consorts has been analyzed in the six parishes that have traditionally constituted the Principality. In total, there have been 10,208 marriages covering a continuous period from 1606 to 1960. From this information, two migration matrices have been constructed, one general and one intra-population. The study of the first one shows the existence of a male migration to long distance, mainly from the nearby Catalan provinces. It also shows that the main parameter that regulates migration is geography and that it indirectly defines the language’s performance and political boundaries as the genetic filters. For the study of the intrapopulation matrix, two methods have been used. On the one hand, a tree has been constructed and has been linked to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Different matrices have also been tested by applying the Mantel test. The results indicate that there is no asymmetry in the mobility of men and women in an intra-population level, a result that is justified by the demographic and social structure of the small population centers of the Pyrenees. It is also shown that geography is the main governing factor travel within the Principality. And finally, we can observe the existence of a genetic substructure in the Andorran population marked again by geography.


Journal: Advances in Anthropology
DOI: 10.4236/aa.2017.72008 (PDF)
Paper Id: 76122 (metadata)

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A Comparative Kinetic Study on the Efficacious Permanganate Oxidation of Fluorenes in Perchloric and Sulfuric Acid Media

Authors: Rabab S. Jassas, Ahmed Fawzy, Rami J. Obied, Mohammed A. S. Abourehab, Saleh A. Ahmed

Oxidation kinetics of fluorene (Fl) and its halogenated derivatives, namely, 2,7-dichlorofluorene (Fl-Cl), 2,7-dibromofluorene (Fl-Br) and 2,7-diiodofluorene (Fl-I), by permanganate ion in both perchloric and sulfuric acid media have been investigated using conventional spectrophotometric technique. In both acidic media, the reactions manifested first order kineticsin [permanganate] and less than unit order each in [reductants] and [acid]. Increasing ionic strength had no effect on the oxidation rates. Oxidation rates of fluorenes in perchloric acid were higher than those in sulfuric acid and the order of the oxidation rates was: Fl > Fl-I > Fl-Br > Fl-Cl. Final oxidation products were identified by GC/MS and FT-IR analyses in all cases as 9H-fluorenone derivatives. Reaction constants as well as activation parameters of the second order rate constants were also evaluated.


Journal: Open Journal of Physical Chemistry
DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2017.72004 (PDF)
Paper Id: 76111 (metadata)

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Multivariate Based Variability within Diverse Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) Genotypes

Authors: Noor Saleem, Sohail Ahmad Jan, Muahmmad Jawaad Atif, Haris Khurshid, Shahid Ali Khan, Mohib Abdullah, Muhammad Jahanzaib, Humair Ahmed,
Syed Farman Ullah, Azhar Iqbal, Sameena Naqi, Muhammad Ilyas, Naushad Ali, Malik Ashiq Rabbani

Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) germplasm consisting 167 accessions including one check cultivar was evaluated for qualitative and quantitative traits. The present study was conducted to investigate genetic diversity and correlation among studied genotypes of B. juncea L. based on agro-morphological at NARC, Islamabad, Pakistan. To investigate the genetic diversity based on morphological characters, data was recorded on 20 quantitative and 12 qualitative traits. The calculated data was analyzed through two complementary methods, i.e. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and cluster analysis. Among all the studied cultivars, significant diversity was recorded for different agro-morphological characters. Among all the parameters, maximum variance was recorded for pod shattering (427.2) followed by plant height (345.6), days to 100% flowering (336.2) and main raceme length (210.0). Among all the characters, the greatest and highly significant association (0.99) was found between days to maturity 50% and days to maturity 100% followed by correlation (0.86) among days to flowering 50% and days to flowering 100%, correlation value (0.71) was calculated among leaf length and leaf width. Continue reading

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The Economics of XVA Trading

Author: Peter J. Zeitsch

The theory of trading with value adjustments, or XVA, is well established. However, the market still differs significantly in pricing practice with houses applying varying numbers of adjustments to the same trade; or none at all. Here the aim is to outline the basic trading strategies used by XVA desks and to explore the implications in terms of the risk transfer involved and the resulting profit and loss. This is achieved through case studies of actual traded structures including details of the positions themselves and the motivation for executing them. The mark-to-market impact is also quantified. Following one case study, a methodology to calculate the cost of funding Initial Margin, or MVA, for linear products will be developed.


Journal: Journal of Mathematical Finance
DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2017.72013 (PDF)
Paper Id: 76056 (metadata)

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Selection of Macroeconomic Forecasting Models: One Size Fits All?

Author: Yunyun Lv

The main distinction between this paper and traditional approach is the assumption that variables affect the economy through different horizons. Under this alternative hypothesis, a variable considered as an unimportant detail from a short-horizon perspective may become an essential factor in a long-horizon standpoint, this paper, therefore, suggests selecting variables specific to the horizon. My findings confirm that a model that allows the variables particular to the horizon has a lower Schwarz Bayesian Information Criterion (SBIC) value than a model that does not. My outcomes also show that the vector autoregression (VAR) model in general forecasts poorly compared with my approach. Likewise, I contribute to the literature by setting predictions equal to the sample mean as a benchmark and showing that the out-of-sample forecasts of the VAR model with lag length higher than one fail to outperform the sample mean. Additionally, I select principal components derived from 190 different time series to forecast a time series as the time horizon varies. Again, the results show that some of the principal components may be more important at some horizons than at others, thus I suggest selecting the principal components in a factor-augmented VAR (FAVAR) model specific to the horizon. According to above results, I conclude that long-horizon and deep-rooted economic problems cannot be fixed with short-horizon and surface-level interventions. I also reach my argument via simulation.


Journal: Theoretical Economics Letters
DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.74048 (PDF)
Paper Id: 76047 (metadata)

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Quality Assessment Statistic Evaluation of X-Ray Fluorescence via NIST and IAEA Standard Reference Materials

Authors: O. M. H. Ahmed, Farouk I. Habbani, A. M. Mustafa, E. M. A. Mohamed,
A. M. Salih, Ftihia Seedig

The aim of this study is a quality assessment of X-ray fluorescence laboratory located at the University of Khartoum. The X-ray fluorescence spectrometer system consists, a set of three 109Cd sources of an initial nominal activity of 10 μCi, and Si(Li) detector Energy Dispersive XRF(EDXRF) systems. It is important to carry out this work because it has an effective contribution for a wide range of research and services. The assessment was carried out by measuring 8 NIST-2709a (soil) and 13 IAEA-155 (milk powder) standard reference material samples for repeatability examinations to test the measurement precision. The total combined standards uncertainty values for XRF lab were estimated by an error from repeatability measurements adding 2.6% for error propagation related to the method. For accuracy assessment, three standard statistic approaches were applied, i.e. the Bias %, zeta-score, and En-number. The bias of all elements for both standard materials was found to be within a deviation range from −28% to 7.8%. The results of all elements for both the zeta-score test and En-number have satisfactory results except Th (Thorium) and Zr (Zirconium) which consider as questionable results for NIST SRM 2709a and unsatisfactory results for En-number.


Journal: World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology
DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2017.72010 (PDF)
Paper Id: 75988 (metadata)

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Saline Intrusion Response to Sea Level Rise and Its Implications on Water and Coastal Management: A Case Study in Brazil

Authors: Raquel Toste, Paulo C. C. Rosman, Marcos A. V. de Freitas

Global temperature is predicted to increase in the end of the century and one of the primary consequences of this warming is the sea level rise. Considering the vulnerabilities on coastal systems and water resources, it is important to evaluate the potential effects of this rising in coastal areas, since the saline intrusion on rivers would be intensified, leading to problems related to water quality. In this context, the present work aimed to verify saline intrusion changes along an important river, São Francisco Canal, located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. For this purpose, a hydrodynamic modeling was performed using SisBaHiA, considering different sea levels and tide conditions. According to the results, it was verified the intensification on saline intrusion and higher salinity values due to a sea level rise of 0.5 m. These results show that new licenses for water withdrawals must be carefully analyzed as the fluvial flow plays an important role to contain the saltwater intrusion on the studied river. Accordingly, it is recommended the evaluation of climate change effects in order to choose best strategies to reduce coastal vulnerability, and the use of this theme on environmental licensing and territorial planning, integrating water planning with coastal management.


Journal: Journal of Water Resource and Protection
DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.95033 (PDF)
Paper Id: 75890 (metadata)

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A Comparative Assessment of the Surface Roughness of Thermoplastic Denture Base Resins Following Adjustment and Re-Polishing

Authors: Shivaughn M. Marchan, Anna Kay Bishop, William A. J. Smith, Paul Seerattan, David Hinds

Purpose: This study assessed the roughness of two injection-molded, thermoplastic materials used for denture bases compared with a polyamide material and compression molded Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) after the adjustment and re-polishing with either a laboratory protocol or a chair side protocol. Methods: Forty specimens, each of PMMA, Valplast, DuraFlex, Dura Cetal were fabricated and finished according to individual manufactures’ instructions. These materials were adjusted with tungsten carbide (TC) burs to mimic gross adjustments, and then re-polished either on a lathe or bonded silicon carbide (B-SC). Following instrumentation, the specimens were assessed using contact profilometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two-factor ANOVA was used to determine significant differences in mean surface roughness (Ra and Rmax), with included factors being material type and re-polishing regimen. Results: Mean Ra values ranged from 0.26 (DuraFlex control) to 1.82 (Valplast adjusted with TC burs). Mean Rmax values ranged from 1.88 (Dura Flex control) to 13.76 (Valplast adjusted with TC burs). Two-factor ANOVA revealed that interaction of both factors was significant (p < 0.05) for Ra and Rmax. Continue reading

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The WWII German Heavy Artillery Battery AV 67 of CleusFoz (Finistère-FR)

Author: Giancarlo T. Tomezzoli

The reading of literature concerning the Atlantic Wall and of the previously published articles may have conveyed the concept that the German military structures of the Atlantic Wall were formed by Regelbauten (rule-built con-structions) (Rs). This concept is not totally wrong, but leads to neglect the im-portant role played by the verstärktenfeldmäβigen Bauwerke (strengthened field constructions) (Vfs) normally included in said structures. The present article, concerning the visit of the site of the WW II German heavy artillery battery of CleusFoz (Finistère-FR) and the discussion of its organization, show that the Vfs in this battery represented the majority of its bunkers, and in this way indicate how said concept should be corrected.


Journal: Archaeological Discovery
DOI: 10.4236/ad.2017.52004 (PDF)
Paper Id: 75792 (metadata)

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Efficient and Innovative Techniques for Collective Acquisition of Weak GNSS Signals

Authors: Maherizo Andrianarison, Mohamed Sahmoudi, René Jr Landry

Navigation and positioning in harsh environments is still a great challenge for many applications. Collective Detection (CD) is a powerful approach for acquiring highly attenuated satellite signals in challenging environments, because of its capacity to process all visible satellites collectively taking advantage of the spatial correlation between GNSS signals as a vector acquisition scheme. CD combines the correlator outputs of satellite channels and projects them onto the position/clock bias domain in order to enhance the overall GNSS signal detection probability. In CD, the code phase search for all satellites in view is mapped into a receiver position/clock bias grid and the satellite signals are not acquired individually but collectively. In this concept, a priori knowledge of satellite ephemeris and reference location are provided to the user. Furthermore, CD addresses some of the inherent drawbacks of the conventional acquisition at the expenses of an increased computational cost. CD techniques are computationally intensive because of the significant number of candidate points in the position-time domain. Continue reading

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