Experiences and Conclusions of the Hungarian Emergency Sepsis Register

Authors: Péter Kanizsai, Tamás Berényi, Miklós Pálvölgyi, János Gál, Zoltán Pető

Objective: Early recognition is a key step in decreasing morbidity and mortality in sepsis. Like in other European countries an ever growing number of septic patients enter hospitals via emergency departments. Our goal was to assess the number and severity of patients with sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock attending the Hungarian emergency departments. Methods: Two-hundred and ninety-nine patients were entered into the Hungarian Emergency Sepsis Register, focusing on age, disease severity, monitoring and oxygenation. Application and time of administration of antibiotics, use of biomarkers, i.e. lactate and procalcitonin, disposition of patients were assessed using a web-based electronic questionnaire. Results: Data arriving from twenty emergency departments revealed that with severity of the disease oxygen administration and level of monitoring increased, along with antibiotic administration and use of biomarkers. Time spent in the ED did not differ between septic, severely septic and septic shock patients; however higher level of care was provided for the sickest patients. Continue reading

Posted in OJEpi | 2 Comments

Ecological Characteristics of Two Closely Related Rodent Species in Urban Environment—Permanent Inhabitant vs Newcomer

Author(s): Agnieszka Pieniążek, Miłosława Sokół, Michał Kozakiewicz

The aim of the study was to characterize natural and urban populations of two Apodemus species—the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) and the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis)—seeking to verify whether the different durations of synurbization have led populations of the two species to exhibit differing characteristics. The study was conducted in central Poland (in Warsaw and its surrounds, in urban parks in the city center and in natural habitats outside the city) over two seasons, during which a total of 1751 striped field mice and 454 yellow-necked mice were live-trapped (using the catch-mark-release method). We found altered characteristics of urban populations of striped field mice, which we interpret as the result of the relatively lengthy synurbization of the species over the last hundred years and its adaptation to the highly modified urban environment. A significantly higher percentage of sexually-active males and a higher average body mass were observed for the urban population of striped field mice, suggesting that the species is in better condition in urban habitats. Continue reading

Posted in NR | 1 Comment

Preparation of Charcoal Using Flower Waste

Author(s): Wondwossen Bogale

Ethiopia is the second largest flower exporter in Africa. However, finding effective solutions for flowers waste management that are economical, efficient and environmentally friendly is a very difficult task. In this paper, a novel technology to recover energy from flower waste with the objective of producing biochar from flower waste by using pyrolysis has been presented. The pyrolysis reactor has been designed, manufactured and tested. Characterization of the flower waste has also been done by estimating the ultimate and proximate analysis. Besides the energy content has been measured by using Bomb calorimeter. Detailed proximate analysis has been performed and the energy content of the biochar has also been measured. The result shows that 10 kg of biochar is produced by using 18 kg of flower waste with a conversion efficiency of 55.5% and approximately 310.8 kg of biochar can be generated daily. Based on the result, the measured value of lower heating value of the produced biochar is 26.54 MJ/kg and approximately 392.2 kg of firewood is replaced daily. Thus, by adopting this innovative technology and producing biochar, the amount of flower waste is reduced from going to the landfill, energy is recovered from flower waste, income is generated from the selling of the produced biochar and the energy problems of the society is solved and finally environmental impact of the flower waste is reduced.


Journal: Journal of Power and Energy Engineering
DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2017.52001 (PDF)
Paper Id: 73959 (metadata)

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Posted in JPEE | 1 Comment

Assessment of Childhood Domestic Injuries among Joint and Nuclear Families of Karachi

Author(s): Asif Khaliq, Amreen Rao, Shahroz Siddiqui, Ghulam Mujtaba Nasir

To assess the frequencies and factors of domestic injuries among children aged less than 5 year. This is a cross sectional study, in which parents who have child less than 5 years of age were targeted. A total of 246 participants had provided satisfactory information and they were approached by non-probability purposive sampling technique from January 2016 to June 2016. The data was entered in Excel and then imported to SPSS 19.0 for inferential analysis. In this study, 89.8% (n = 221) mothers and 10.2% (n = 25) father who had participated. 52.08% (n = 123) parents were from joint family. The different types of domestic injuries faced by children were fall (52%), sharp cut (36%), and burn (31%) and Temporary fever, rashes and scratches were the most common consequence of domestic injury as experienced by 57% children. No any significant difference (p > 0.05) in the storage practices of different household hazardous item was observed among the parents living in joint and nuclear family system. Protecting children from domestic injury is a multi-dimensional approach. It needs parent’s education, manufacturer guidance, Government regulation and joint community efforts for proper and safe storage of household items. These measures will aid in reducing the burden of childhood domestic injuries.


Journal: Open Journal of Social Sciences
DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.52006 (PDF)
Paper Id: 73918 (metadata)

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Posted in JSS | 2 Comments

Production of Multi-Features Driven Nationwide Vegetation Physiognomic Map and Comparison to MODIS Land Cover Type Product

Author(s): Ram C. Sharma, Keitarou Hara, Hidetake Hirayama, Ippei Harada, Daisuke Hasegawa, Mizuki Tomita, Jong Geol Park, Ichio Asanuma, Kevin M. Short, Masatoshi Hara, Yoshihiko Hirabuki, Michiro Fujihara, Ryutaro Tateishi

Irrespective of several attempts to land use/cover mapping at local, regional, or global scales, mapping of vegetation physiognomic types is limited and challenging. The main objective of the research is to produce an accurate nationwide vegetation physiognomic map by using automated machine learning approach with the support of reference data. A time-series of the multi-spectral and multi-indices data derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were exploited along with the land-surface slope data. Reliable reference data of the vegetation physiognomic types were prepared by refining the existing vegetation survey data available in the country. The Random Forests based mapping framework adopted in the research showed high performance (Overall accuracy = 0.82, Kappa coefficient = 0.79) using 148 optimum number of features out of 231 featured used. A nationwide vegetation physiognomic map of year 2013 was produced in the research. Continue reading

Posted in ARS | 1 Comment

Land Use Change and Traffic Impact Analysis in Planned Urban Areas in Tanzania: The Case of Dar es Salaam City

Author(s): Wilfred G. Kazaura, Marco M. Burra

This paper is based on the review of the statutory requirements for land use change development projects in Urban Planned areas. In spite of Environmental and Social Economic Impact Analysis reports considered as basic requirements for the approval of development plans in Tanzania, the depth of traffic impact measurements and Traffic Impact Analysis (TIA) has not been adequately considered in urban plans. More concern is on approval process of development proposals that makes a case for the preparation of TIA as a separate and distinct study for proposed projects. We argue in this paper that while TIA is more germane in areas where land use change proposals are taking place very rapidly, most projects still do not asses or analyse the traffic impacts from the proposed developments on the existing transport networks. Thus, in Tanzania, TIA is the most concealed component in urban planning laws and regulations and its approach, level of execution and functional standards are neither exposed nor put into urban planning operations. Continue reading

Posted in CUS | 2 Comments

Ecological, Biological and Genetic Adaptation to Xeric Habitats of Salamandra infraimmaculata on the Southern Border of Its Distribution

Author(s): Gad Degani

In the present mini-review, published and unpublished data that have been collected for more than 40 years on the adaption of Salamandra infraimmaculata to semi-arid environments on the southern border of its distribution are presented. The contribution of the present paper is in building a model based on comparing moist habitats with predictable and relatively constant conditions to semi-arid habitats with relatively dry conditions. Based on these parameters, the model suggests adaptation to semi-arid habitats. More specifically, this model is based on the morphology, biology, behavior, life cycle and physiology of S. infraimmaculata adaptation. By considering these many parameters, one hypothesis was raised and was supported. The adaptation to and selection of semi-arid habitats depend mainly on the terrestrial phase and very little on the aquatic phases. In all of the semi-arid habitats, there are various breeding places where the larvae can grow and complete metamorphosis. The molecular genetic variation among the various areas supports our hypothesis, and the difference in the moist habitats is greater than in the semi-arid environments.


Journal: Open Journal of Animal Sciences
DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2017.71007 (PDF)
Paper Id: 73878 (metadata)

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Posted in OJAS | 2 Comments

The Generalized r-Whitney Numbers

Author(s): B. S. El-Desouky, F. A. Shiha, Ethar M. Shokr

In this paper, we define the generalized r-Whitney numbers of the first and second kind. Moreover, we drive the generalized Whitney numbers of the first and second kind. The recurrence relations and the generating functions of these numbers are derived. The relations between these numbers and generalized Stirling numbers of the first and second kind are deduced. Furthermore, some special cases are given. Finally, matrix representation of the relations between Whitney and Stirling numbers is given.


Journal: Applied Mathematics
DOI: 10.4236/am.2017.81010 (PDF)
Paper Id: 73870 (metadata)

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Posted in AM | 2 Comments

ADMET Polymerization: Greener Method for Synthesis of End-Functionalized Poly(Arylene Vinylene)s

Author(s): Tahmina Haque, Kotohiro Nomura

Recent results for synthesis of conjugated polymers, poly(arylene vinylene)s exemplified as poly(fluorene vinylene)s and poly(phenylene vinylene)s, by acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) polymerization have been introduced. The methods using molybdenum and ruthenium catalysts afforded defect-free, high molecular weight polymers with all trans olefinic double bonds, and significant reduction of by-products (halogen, sulfur etc.) in addition of decrease of structurally defects have been attained. The methods also demonstrated precise synthesis of end-functionalized polymers that showed unique optical properties combined with the end groups. Catalytic one-pot syntheses of end-functionalized poly(9,9-dialkylfluorene-2,7-vinylene)s have been attained by both ruthenium (by chain-transfer) and molybdenum catalysts and the method should provide more green route for synthesis of conjugated materials with better device performance.


Journal: Green and Sustainable Chemistry
DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2017.71001 (PDF)
Paper Id: 73869 (metadata)

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Posted in GSC | 3 Comments

Continuous Gas Outflow Is More Effective Than Carbon Filters to Evacuate Smoke in Laparoscopic Colorectal Resections: A Comparative Study

Author(s): Enrique M. Balén, Javier Suárez, Begoña Oronoz, José M. Lera

Background: Carbon filters and expensive evacuation machines are available to evacuate surgical smoke in long-lasting laparoscopic operations and achieve good visibility and patient’s safety. Methods: This study was aimed to determine which of two methods for laparoscopic smoke evacuation is most effective getting the best visibility. 20 patients submitted to elective laparoscopic colorectal resections were allocated to be operated using, either a carbon filter (Group A) or a home-made tubing with a continuous suction (Group B) connected through one of the ports to the hospital vacuum system: both methods were regulated with a roller clamp to increase smoke evacuation in order to obtain good visibility. A mono-polar hook and the LigasureV 5-mm vessel-sealing device were used. Groups were comparable for demographic characteristics, surgical techniques, and malignancy. Mann-Whitney and Fisher’s exact test were used for statistics. Continue reading

Posted in SS | 1 Comment