Evaluation of Corrosion Product Activity in a Typical PWR with Extended Cycles and Flow Rate Perturbations

Author(s): Rubina Nasir, Sikander M. Mirza, Nasir M. Mirza

Effect of flow rate perturbations has been studied using the modified computer program CPAIR-P for time dependent corrosion rates in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) having extended cycles. In these simulations, a decrease in the corresponding saturation values of corrosion product activity (CPA) is observed for higher pH values. Comparison of CPA’s behavior has been done for constant flow-rate case as well as for transients with elevated 10B levels (~40%) in dissolved boric acid in coolant in two operating cycles. When the flow rate is decreased in the first cycle, the saturation value of CPA attains new higher values. Also, in the second operating cycle, the saturation values are about 12% higher when compared with the values in the first cycle.


Journal: World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology
DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2017.71003 (PDF)
Paper Id: 73189 (metadata)

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Correlation between Serum Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin and Burn Severity: A Pilot Study

Author(s): Sungjun Lee, Suyeol Lee, Youngwhan Choi, Song Vogue Ahn, Cheonjae Yoon, Jungsuk Lee

The severity of an initial burn injury is critical for determining the treatment plan and prognosis of burn patients. Here, we measured serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels to determine whether NGAL can be used as a biomarker for severity of burn injuries. A study of the demographic, clinical, and laboratory markers for various organ damage was performed at Bestian Burn Center (n = 10 healthy people, n = 31 patients). NGAL and organ damage marker levels were measured in 31 patients with severe burns within 2 – 3 days following their admission to the intensive care unit. Serum NGAL level of the expired patients was 788.5 (685.0 – 998.0) pg/mL, whereas that of the discharged patients was 421.2 (356.2 – 480.6) pg/mL, showing that the initial serum NGAL level can be used to estimate mortality. We also determined the correlation between serum NGAL level and the currently used severity markers (total body surface area burned and abbreviated burn severity index) and confirmed that serum NGAL level could be used as a severity marker. We also found that serum NGAL level was correlated with damage of organs such as the liver, kidney, heart, and respiratory organs in patients with severe burns.


Journal: Journal of Biosciences and Medicines
DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2017.51002 (PDF)
Paper Id: 73294 (metadata)

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Bacterial Fecal Microbiota in Healthy Subjects and Inpatients with Clostridium difficile Infection

Author(s): Thaís Flecher Barbosa, Danielle Angst Secco, Raquel Silva Peixoto, Alexandre Soares Rosado, Flavia Lima do Carmo, Hugo Emiliano de Jesus, Leandro Araujo Lobo, Luis Caetano Martha Antunes, Karla Rodrigues Miranda, Geraldo Renato de Paula, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pilotto Domingues

Clostridium difficile is a nosocomial enteric pathogen, considered the main etiological agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitals. C. difficile is resistant to several antimicrobial agents used in empiric treatment protocols, which confers selective advantages to this species as compared with other members of the intestinal microbiota. The aim of this study was to evaluate and identify possible alterations of the intestinal microbiota population resulting from the use of antimicrobials associated with infections by C. difficile (CDI). Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to evaluate fecal samples from two groups: healthy subjects and patients with C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). A decrease in bacterial diversity was highlighted by the low number of bands in samples from CDAD patients, compared with healthy subjects. This may indicate that antibiotic treatment would affect bacterial diversity, leading to a significant difference between the intestinal microbiota of these two groups, but further studies are still needed. Firmicutes and Verrucomicrobia phyla were detected mainly in healthy individuals, and these could be related to protection factors against the CDI. Klebsiella variicola/K. pneumoniae were found mostly in samples from CDI patients. This study shows the effects of antimicrobials and the CDI itself on human intestinal microbiota.


Journal: Advances in Microbiology
DOI: 10.4236/aim.2017.71002 (PDF)
Paper Id: 73277 (metadata)

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A Novel Splash Plate Design for Serial Reuse Raceways

Author(s): Michael E. Barnes, Eric Krebs, Patrick A. Nero, Kelby Torgerson, Daniel V. Johnson

Serial reuse raceways in fish hatcheries typically use dam boards and screens to separate each raceway unit in the series. This paper describes a novel raceway splash plate constructed of aluminum plate and angle, which eliminates the need for screens when mounted on top of raceway dam boards. In addition to reducing the labor required to remove and replace, and clean screens, the splash plate increased the amount of available rearing space. Incoming water dissolved oxygen concentrations were also increased. These splash plates are relatively easy and inexpensive to fabricate, and their use can lead to increased efficiencies during hatchery rearing.


Journal: World Journal of Engineering and Technology
DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2017.71002 (PDF)
Paper Id: 73248 (metadata)

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Infinite Number of Twin Primes

Author(s): S. N. Baibekov, A. A. Durmagambetov

This work is devoted to the theory of prime numbers. Firstly it introduced the concept of matrix primes, which can help to generate a sequence of prime numbers. Then it proposed a number of theorems, which together with theorem of Dirichlet, Siegel and Euler allow to prove the infinity of twin primes.


Journal: Advances in Pure Mathematics
DOI: 10.4236/apm.2016.613073 (PDF)
Paper Id: 72773 (metadata)

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Female Sex Workers and Their Association with Self-Help Groups in Thane, Maharashtra, India: A Comparative Analysis in the Context of HIV Program Outcome

Author(s): Awdhesh Yadav, Saravanamurthy P. Sakthivel, Shaikh Tayyaba, Uma Shah, Ashok Agarwal

Objectives: Understanding the role of Self-Help Group (SHG) in light of the evolving dynamics of sex work needs to be delved into to strategize HIV interventions among FSWs in India. This paper aims to study the HIV program outcome among the FSWs associated with SHGs and FSWs not associated with SHGs in Thane, Maharashtra. Study Design: This cross-sectional study was undertaken from the Behavioral Tracking Survey (BTS) conducted among 503 FSWs in Thane in 2015. Two-stage probability based conventional sampling was done for selection of brothel and bar based FSWs, while Time Location Cluster (TLC) sampling was done for home, lodge and street based sex workers. Methods: Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to compare and contrast between FSWs associated with SHG and those not associated with SHG with respect to the utilization of HIV related services by them. “Condom use”, “consistent condom use”, “contact with peer-educators”, “counseling sessions” and “HIV testing” were chosen as indicators on HIV service utilization. Continue reading

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Effort Application in an Arranged Marriage: A Game-Theoretic Analysis

Author(s): Amitrajeet A. Batabyal, Seung Jick Yoo

In this note we study a simple game model of effort application by two individuals (1 and 2) who wish to have an arranged marriage. We first specify the net utility function of individual i as a function of this individual’s own effort and the effort applied by individual j,i ≠ j , in three distinct cases. Next, we compute the ith individual’s best response function. Finally, we analyze effort application by two identical pairs of individuals who are located in two different nations. In the first (second) nation, arranged marriages are uncommon (common) and hence it is relatively difficult (straightforward) for the two individuals to apply and coordinate effort. We explain why the net utility of the pair wishing to have an arranged marriage in the first nation is likely to be much lower than the corresponding net utility of the pair in the second nation.


Journal: Theoretical Economics Letters
DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.71003 (PDF)
Paper Id: 72719 (metadata)

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Crowdfunding and Crowdmicrofinance, an Evolution of Models for Entrepreneurship of the Poor

Author(s): Laurence Attuel-Mendes

After the boom of microfinance, we witness boom of crowdfunding. Thus, it is interesting to study their interactions. Benefiting both of a rich historic heritage, these two notions, even though non-synonymous, aim at similar goals. Funding of the economy for the latter poverty alleviation and financial eradication for the former—in its welfarist definition—make it quite logical that these two notions meet to serve each other. Indeed, they stand to be a major lever for entrepreneurs, for whom fundraising has always been an issue. Microfinance has become a tool of democratisation of entrepreneurship funding, while crowdfunding potentially opens entrepreneurship funding to masses. Combining both crowdfunding and microfinance can lead to an acceleration of poverty eradication.


Journal: Open Access Library Journal
DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103251 (PDF)
Paper Id: 72713 (metadata)

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Love Is Not an Emotion

Author(s): Enrique Burunat

Romantic love—referred to as love—, is a physiological drive, but society has come to understand it as an emotion. Nevertheless, many researchers, mainly psychologists, have established its impulsive and motivational characteristics, which are even similar to those of addictive drug abuse. However, many professionals in the field of psychology and psychiatry still consider love to be a complex emotion or feeling. This article describes some of the causes and consequences of the extensive confusion between love and emotion. Some reasons to consider love as a physiological motivation, like hunger, thirst, sleep and sexuality are also summarized. A Love Withdrawal Syndrome is proposed. It concludes by highlighting the urgency to eliminate love from the catalogue of emotions in psychology, as an item or cluster in psychological tests, and also as an emotional mental function, by contributing to its dramatic consequences, mainly divorces, suicides and femicides.


Journal: Psychology
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.714173 (PDF)
Paper Id: 72678 (metadata)

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A Data Analytics Study on Building Characteristics Impacting Energy Consumption in Single-Family Attached Homes

Author(s): Juan D. Gomez, Afamia Elnakat, Marzieh Jafary, Martha Wright

San Antonio, Texas is the seventh largest city in the United States with a population of 1.4 million people, and ranked among the fastest growing cities. To assess the implications of past and present building practices within the residential sector on future energy consumption, the energy utilization of single-family attached homes (SFAH) in Bexar County, Texas is studied. The available dataset includes 3932 SFAH records representing about 33% of the total number of SFAHs within the county. The study is based on pairing and analyzing data at the individual building level from a variety of sources including the buildings’ physical characteristics, access to fuels, and monthly energy consumption. The results indicate that the area of conditioned space, presence of swimming pools, number of stories, presence of fireplaces, fuel-type, and number of shared walls are a significant factor on the energy consumption of single-family attached homes. In terms of energy consumption, all-electric two-story homes sharing two walls are the most energy efficient among SFAHs. This study can aid comprehensive master planning efforts for developing sustainable communities by highlighting key features of SFAHs and making the case for higher density housing as a viable and more energy efficient alternative to single-family detached homes (SFDH).


Journal: Open Journal of Energy Efficiency
DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2016.54011 (PDF)
Paper Id: 72484 (metadata)

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