A Scientific and Economic View on Collaboration, Balancing vs. Sharing

Authors: Masayuki Matsui, Tetsuo Yamada, Masato Takanokura

ABSTRACT
There is a class of artifacts bodies and their science, also known as 3M & I-bodies in 2008, which consist of human, material/machine, monetary and informational components. For multi-body systems, the paper discusses and develops the scientific and economic fundamentals of the Follett-like classification as domination, compromise, integration and sharing in 2-center conflict types (Matsui, 1983). That is, the mathematical view is based on the Venn diagram of sets in mathematics, the physical view is based on the principle of the lever in Archimedes’ work, and the economical view is based on the profit (specific gravity) and Matsui’s equation. From a systematic view composed of these, it is obtained that the integration pursues the maximization of intersection (compromise) in the two-center, whereas the sharing pursues the minimization of intersection (compromise) in field. When the marginal (maximal) profit is the same, both are pointed out to be similar on the relation of classical Nash’s solution and duality; the scientific and economic findings will contribute to the advance of the coming society and its visibility and harmony in collaboration vs. sharing.

Source:

Journal: Theoretical Economics Letters
DOI: 10.4236/tel.2019.91005(PDF)
Paper Id: 90224 (metadata)

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Comparison of Ruin Probabilities in Compound Poisson Risk Model

Author: Dol Nath Khanal

ABSTRACT
Compound Poisson risk model has been simulated. It has started with exponential claim sizes. The simulations have checked for infinite ruin probabilities. An appropriate time window has been chosen to estimate and compare ruin probabilities. The infinite ruin probabilities of two-compound Poisson risk process have estimated and compared them with standard theoretical results.

Source:

Journal: Open Journal of Statistics
DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2019.91004(PDF)
Paper Id: 90193 (metadata)

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Acceleration of Homomorphic Arithmetic Processing Based on the ElGamal Cryptosystem

Authors: Takuma Jogan, Tomofumi Matsuzawa, Masayuki Takeda

ABSTRACT
In recent years, opportunities for using cloud services as computing resources have increased and there is a concern that private information may be leaked when processes data. The data processing while maintaining confidentiality is called secret computation. Cryptosystems can add and multiply plaintext through the manipulation of ciphertexts of homomorphic cryptosystems, but most of them have restrictions on the number of multiplications that can be performed. Among the different types of cryptosystems, fully homomorphic encryption can perform arbitrary homomorphic addition and multiplication, but it takes a long time to eliminate the limitation on the number of homomorphic operations and to carry out homomorphic multiplication. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an arithmetic processing method that can perform an arbitrary number of homomorphic addition and multiplication operations based on ElGamal cryptosystem. The results of experiments comparing with the proposed method with HElib in which the BGV scheme of fully homomorphic encryption is implemented showed that, although the processing time for homomorphic addition per ciphertext increased by about 35%, the processing time for homomorphic multiplication was reduced to about 1.8%, and the processing time to calculate the statistic (variance) had approximately a 15% reduction.

Source:

Journal: Communications and Network
DOI: 10.4236/cn.2019.111001(PDF)
Paper Id: 90143 (metadata)

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Prototype of an Echo-PIV Method for Use in Underwater Nuclear Decommissioning Inspections

Authors: Takuya Kawachi, Robert Malkin, Hideharu Takahashi, Hiroshige Kikura

ABSTRACT
The ongoing decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi (1F) nuclear power plant requires the inspection of the inside of containment vessels that have been submerged in water. These inspections must locate leaks and map the distribution of fuel debris in water with very low visibility. This paper reports the design and testing of an echo-PIV system that uses a single divergent signal wave and delay-and-sum processing to efficiently map the interior and fluid flow within a submerged vessel. The diverging wave and delay-and-sum processing improve upon the performance of conventional ultrasound PIV methods specifically to meet the demands of containment vessel inspections. The imaging method uses an ultrasonic linear sensor array that emits a diverging wave that covers a wide angle with a single transmission. The delay-and-sum algorithm combines echo signals recorded by each element of the sensor array. We optimized the design of an echo-PIV system in laboratory-scale tests, and then tested the prototype with a mockup of a containment vessel in a water tank. The small-scale prototype successfully located a mock leak and mapped the surface of a piece of mock debris. This prototype can be scaled up readily for inspections at the Fukushima Daiichi plant.

Source:

Journal: Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization
DOI: 10.4236/jfcmv.2019.71003(PDF)
Paper Id: 90098 (metadata)

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Comparison of Different Sampling Techniques for the Identification of Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Fire Effluents

Authors: Abdulrhman M. Dhabbah, A. Yacine Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, Anna A. Stec,
T. Richard Hull

ABSTRACT
Huge amounts of various polymers are being used in many fields with numerous benefits. However, their great ability to ignition and rapid flame spreading make these materials dangerous for human life and properties due to the release of highly toxic combustion products. The present work aims to investigate several methods of sampling and identification of aromatic hydrocarbons produced by controlled burning of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) using a toxicity tube furnace. Five different sampling methods were used: solid phase micro extraction (SPME), syringe, tedlar bags, sorption tubes, and gas-solution absorbers (midget impingers). The produced hydrocarbons were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with and without pyrolysis. Among the tested techniques, the most convenient sampling method was using syringe with a glass vessel which allowed detection of the highest amount of aromatic hydrocarbons at both 800°C and 600°C, and then followed by SPME. On the other hand, the use of gas-solution absorber (midget impinger) showed poorer results. Regarding the use of tedlar bags and sorption tubes, they did not give satisfactory results. Several carcinogenic or possibly carcinogenic compounds were identified in the combustion products, such as benzene, naphthalene, anthracene and pyrene.

Source:

Journal: American Journal of Analytical Chemistry
DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2019.101003(PDF)
Paper Id: 90066 (metadata)

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Upgraded Force on a Wall from Reflected Surface Gravity Waves

Author: Kern E. Kenyon

ABSTRACT
During reflection from a solid vertical wall, surface gravity waves produce a steady force on the wall, which was calculated earlier by the momentum method. Recently the linear momentum of these waves has been estimated to be twice as large as deduced from the classical Stokes drift formula. Therefore, the magnitude of the reflected wave force has been doubled here and the algebraic form of the equation is converted to be more understandable physically. Wave force equals fluid density times the square of the particle’s orbital speed and a numerical constant. Observations are welcomed to compare with the theory.

Source:

Journal: Natural Science
DOI: 10.4236/ns.2019.111004(PDF)
Paper Id: 90037 (metadata)

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Impact of Rapid Urbanization and Changing Housing Patterns on Urban Open Public Spaces of Amman, Jordan: A GIS and RS Perspective

Authors: Yahya Farhan, Sireen Al-Shawamreh

ABSTRACT
Rapid urbanization and population growth of the Amman Area were combined with land resource degradation when the city was heading for mounting urbanization from the early 1950s. The deterioration of natural resources and green areas, was coupled with the creation of different urban public open spaces in the city. The transformation from large single-family houses to dense residential apartments was associated with social and behavioral changes among the inhabitants living in the dense apartments. Consequently, a large private sector has been developed to provide public and social spaces. Photo-interpretation and satellite images were used to map and characterize land use/cover changes have been occurred in the Amman area between 1953 and 2017. Maximum Likelihood Classification method was employed to identify land use/cover changes between 1986 and 20017, and GIS was utilized also to map examples of the recently emerged socio-economic open spaces. Excessive urban development in the last two decades, and the adoption of neo-liberal privatization policies by the government, enhanced social stratification and residential segregation. So, instead of encouraging outdoor activity and social interaction among all groups of Amman residents, the freedom of accessibility to major open spaces has been restricted within the same urban fabric, thus, the “two Ammans” paradigm, a “tale of two cities”, has been recently acknowledged.

Source:

Journal: Journal of Environmental Protection
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2019.101005(PDF)
Paper Id: 89989 (metadata)

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Orbital Approach to High Temperature Superconductivity

Author: Peter Love

ABSTRACT
High temperature superconductivity in cuprates is explained in terms of 3d-orbital capture in copper. In elemental Cu 3d-orbital capture abstracts an electron from the 4 s2 valence orbital, and leaves it as 4 s1. This is known since Cu occurs in Group IB of the Periodic Table. This forms an electron vacancy, or hole, in the valence shell. Therefore, the energy of 3d-orbital capture is stronger than the energy of unpairing of a paired-spin 4 s2 orbital. In cuprates 3d-orbital capture abstracts an electron from a Cu-O covalent bond, and leaves a hole in the excited state orbital. By electron-hole migration the excited state orbital leads to a coordinate covalent bond. This leads to superconductivity. The 3d-orbital process accounts for superconductivity and insulator behavior in cuprates. These results lend credence to the statement that 3d-orbital capture in copper is the cause of high temperature superconductivity.

Source:

Journal: Natural Science
DOI: 10.4236/ns.2019.111001(PDF)
Paper Id: 89967 (metadata)

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Stakeholders’ Pressure and CSR Engagement. A Case in the Apparel Sector

Authors: Andrea Lucchini, Anna Maria Moisello

ABSTRACT
This paper, drawing on stakeholder and legitimacy theory, addresses the issue of stakeholders’ pressure effect on a firm’s CSR behavior. It focuses on the apparel sector as these companies, characterized by consumer proximity, are under the lens of stakeholders for their direct social performance as well as for their suppliers’ actions. We analyze the Nike case in order to study how stakeholders’ pressure shapes a firm’s engagement in CSR issues. Our study points out the dynamic nature of stakeholders and legitimacy, and it underlines the influence of two actors which are rarely considered as primary and most important stakeholders, namely media and social activist groups.

Source:

Journal: American Journal of Industrial and Business Management
DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2019.91012(PDF)
Paper Id: 89941 (metadata)

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Technology, Society and the Digital Gap

Author: Yaron Katz

ABSTRACT
What is more influential—technology or society? While this issue has been in constant dilemma for many researches, the situation in Israel is clear: Israel is a leading high-tech country and technology is leading society in all aspects. In terms of technology, Israel is a technologically advanced market economy. It is known as a “Start-up Nation”, which means that its economic growth is stupendous and leading in high-tech worldwide. On the other hand, Israel is among the most impoverished of the OECD member countries, with a high rate of poverty and a social and digital big gap between its rich and poor. The main issue that this research investigates is the social gap of a developed country and a leading start-up nation which falls behind many countries in major social and policy categories. As the research demonstrates, Israel is a prime example of the domination of technology over society. The country’s development is a product of the digital revolution which situates Israel as a developed country in terms of technology, however also has been negative for the socio-economic inequality, to what this research defines as the digital gap.

Source:

Journal: Advances in Applied Sociology
DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2019.91005(PDF)
Paper Id: 89901 (metadata)

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