Peer Pressure and Family Smoking Habits Influence Smoking Uptake in Teenage Boys Attending School: Multilevel Modeling of Survey Data

Author(s): Shafquat Rozi, Sadia Mahmud, Gillian Lancaster, Nida Zahid


Introduction: Among young teens, about one in five smokes worldwide. Adolescents spend a considerable amount of their time in school, and the school environment is therefore important for child health practices and outcomes.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the impact on smoking behavior of the school environment and the personal characteristics of male teenage students attending schools in Pakistan, taking into account the survey sampling structure.

Methods: A two-stage cluster sampling with stratification was employed, and we interviewed 772 male secondary school students. We adopted random effect and generalizing estimating equation models in this study published in the Epidemiology journal.

Results: Peer pressure in particular had a strong influence on adolescents smoking; those whose friends smoked were up to 6 times more likely to smoke. Family smoking was also significantly associated with adolescents smoking, but those students whose mother was educated were 50% less likely to smoke.

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Photo Acoustic Thermal for Human Bone Characterization: A Feasibility Study

Author(s): James Rizkalla, Vinay Kumar Suryadevara, Ashok Kumar Thella, Ahdy Helmy, Paul Salama, Maher E. Rizkalla


The possible features of photo acoustic tomography (PAT) in medical research and practice, including applications in orthopedics and cardiovascular areas, among others, have motivated the emphasis of this Biomedical Science study towards human bone applications. PAT modality is an emerging approach that features safety and greater penetration depth compared to other modalities such as X-ray and microwave. The high-resolution images and safety related to PAT modality are attributed to the scattering properties of ultrasound as compared to light within a human tissue. PAT brought considerable attention from the medical research community to target optimum parameters for practical models. It includes source frequency penetration depth, dynamic temperature responses, and acoustic pressure throughout the multilayer structure of the human tissues. Continue reading

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Playing through the Pain: A University-Based Study of Sports Injury

Author(s):Geneviève Jessiman-Perreault, Jenny Godley


This paper presents findings from a survey that assessed university students’ opinions about sports injury. Specifically, the paper seeks to understand whether university students who participate in sports at different levels would choose to participate while injured, and who or what influences these decisions. An online survey was administered to 275 university students. Results indicate that the concept of the “sports ethic” was a major determinant in respondents’ reported willingness to play through injuries. The sports ethic influenced participants at all levels of sport (casual, amateur, and professional). We suggest that once the sports ethic is internalized, it may counter the potential buffering capacity of injury prevention programs. The implications of these Physical Education findings for injury prevention education are assessed.


Journal: Advances in Physical Education
DOI: 10.4236/ape.2016.63020 (PDF)
Paper Id: 69479 (metadata)

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Design and Testing of a Solar Torrefaction Unit to Produce Charcoal

Author(s): Rajaram Swaminathan, Frans Nelongo Pandeni Nandjembo

With increasing crude oil prices, fuels like kerosene and cooking gas have become unaffordable for many ordinary people in developing countries. For millions of Africans who need heat energy to cook their food, biomass like wood remains the easiest and cheapest source of fuel. Charcoal remains the most popular choice compared to wood since it can cook food much faster with very little smoke. Torrefaction of biomass is a mild form of pyrolysis at temperatures typically between 200℃ and 300℃ to produce charcoal. Torrefaction changes biomass properties to provide a much better fuel quality for combustion applications. A simple parabolic trough solar collector to produce charcoal by torrefaction process using solar energy has been designed from first principles. The device was fabricated and various locally available wood species were tested. The yield was found to be 21% to 35% with a production time of 90 minutes. The paper details the design procedure and the test results.


Journal: Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems
DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2016.63007 (PDF)
Paper Id: 69633 (metadata)

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Impact of Smoking on Circadian Typology, Sleep Habits and Mental Health of Japanese Students Aged 18 – 30 Years

Author(s): Takahiro Kawada, Kotaro Oki, Yumiko Yamazaki, Fujiko Tsuji, Miyo Nakade, Teruki Noji, Milada Krejci, Hitomi Takeuchi, Tetsuo Harada


Many studies have shown that smoking can be related to worse sleep quality. However, as the impact of smoking, double view points on mental health and chronotype have been shortened. An integrated psychological questionnaire including the diurnal type scale constructed by Torsvall & Åkerstedt, and questions on smoking was administered to 1376 students attending university and mental training schools (693 women and 683 men), 19.9 years on average in 2010-2013. Only 4.1% of the participants were smokers and they tended to be more evening-typed than non-smokers (p = 0.061). Smokers had significantly more difficulty falling asleep (p = 0.003) and more frequently lacked emotional control (p = 0.001) than non smokers. Smoking, being evening-type and having poor mental health may all be correlated in students attending Japanese university and medical training schools.


Journal: Psychology
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.79122 (PDF)
Paper Id: 69606 (metadata)

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Changes of Children’s Motivation in Physical Education and Physical Activity: A Longitudinal Perspective

Author(s): Xiangli Gu, Tao Zhang


Children’s motivation towards Physical Education (PE) decreases over the elementary school year, but little is known about how and why those declines influence changes of children’s intention and Physical Activity (PA). Guided by the expectancy-value model, this study attempted to examine the relationship between changes of children’s motivation to changes in children’s intention for future participation in PE and PA over an academic year. Using a repeated measurement technique, 354 (4th 180, 5th 174) school children’s expectancy-related beliefs, task values, intention, and PA were assessed twice over one academic school year. Time 1 was at the beginning of the fall semester, and Time 2 was at the end of the subsequent spring semester. Students’ expectancy-related beliefs and task values were positively related to their intention and PA at both Time 1 and Time 2.

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Aliens, Humans, Animals, & Luck: Animal Treatment & Human Morality

Author(s): Randall S. Firestone

This paper proposes two thought experiments to demonstrate that our current treatment of animals is immoral. The first thought experiment involves aliens coming to earth and doing to us what we do to animals—eating us, confining us in farms and zoos, doing experiments on us, etc. Drawing on the latest scientific research on the abilities of animals, this thought experiment seeks to show that there are more relevant similarities between human beings and animals than most people realize, and that the Continue reading

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Freezing of Reality: Is Flow of Time Real?

Author(s): Bernard Korzeniewski

In physics, space-time is frequently treated as a congealed timeless block, in which there is no place for the unidirectional and irreversible flow (arrow) of time and the present. However, we receive the world subjectively as “happening” in time, which is inseparably associated with the psychical feeling of the present, separating the past and the future. This article postulates that these phenomena exist in a completely real manner. An irreversible process called here the “freezing of reality” is Continue reading

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Business Start-Ups or Disguised Unemployment? Evidence on the Determinants of Self-Employment from Urban China

Author(s):Xinxin Ma

This study provides evidence on the determinants of self-employment for urban local registration residents in China. Using CHIP2007, the employment status is divided into four categories: self-employed employers, own-account workers, employees, and the unemployed. Several major con-clusions emerge. First, compared with the employee, holding other factors (e.g., human capital) constant, the wage premium associated with the self-employed employer is higher, while the wage Continue reading

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Artificial Neural Network Model for Friction Factor Prediction

Author(s): Uchechukwu Herbert Offor, Sunday Boladale Alabi

Friction factor estimation is essential in fluid flow in pipes calculations. The Colebrook equation, which is a referential standard for its estimation, is implicit in friction factor, f. This implies that f can only be obtained via iterative solution. Sequel to this, explicit approximations of the Colebrook equation developed using analytical approaches have been proposed. A shift in paradigm is the application Continue reading

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