Crystallinity of FRCM/GPM with High PB through Microbial Growth

Authors: Sourav Kumar Das, Bulbul Ahmed, Rony Mia, Abu Bakar, Injamam Ul Huq,
Dan Xie

Fiber reinforced composite (FRC) requires a process of grinding, mixing and compounding natural fibers from cellulosic waste streams into a polymer matrix that creates a high-strength fiber composite. In this situation, the specified waste or base raw materials used are the waste thermoplastics and different types of cellulosic waste including rice husk and saw dust. FRC is a high-performance fiber composite achieved and made possible through a proprietary molecular re-engineering process by interlinking cellulosic fiber molecules with resins in the FRC material matrix, resulting in a product of exceptional structural properties. In this feat of molecular re-engineering, selected physical and structural properties of wood are effectively cloned and obtained in the FRC component, in addition to other essential qualities in order to produce superior performance properties to conventional wood. The dynamic characteristics of composite structures are largely extracted from the reinforcing of fibres. The fiber, held in place by the matrix resin, contributes to tensile strength in a composite, enhancing the performance properties in the final part, such as strength and rigidity, while minimizing weight. The advantages of composite materials always beat down their disadvantages. In this analysis, we tried to find out FRC advance manufacturing, recycling technology and future perspective for mankind and next generation development. This research will bring a new horizon for future science with FRC technology and every aspect of modern science which will bring a stable dimensional stability by recycling process with minimizing waste for environment and next generation science.


Journal: Advances in Nanoparticles
DOI: 10.4236/anp.2020.94006(PDF)
Paper Id: 103358 (metadata)

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Path Analysis between Organizational Size and Forms of Organizational Commitment

Authors: A. Olu Oyinlade, Zachary J. Christo

This study attempted to predict the relationship between organizational size and the three established forms of organizational commitment: affective, normative and continuance. We found no statistical evidence or compelling logic to ascertain that organizational size, in itself, will be a meaningful direct predictor of each of the three forms of organizational commitment, and any statistical significance of such relationship would be spurious and meaningless. However, we tested for indirect relationships between size and the commitment variants through five selected mediating variables. We tested the null for three model and 18 path hypotheses using the structural equation model. Our findings showed a fit between our data and model for predicting both affective and normative but not continuance commitment. All 18 path hypotheses were statistically significant as each mediating variable and the commitment variables were predicted by their antecedents. The study showed that perceived firm internal labor market (FILM) upward mobility propensity, voluntary employee organizational involvement, and employee investments in their organizations significantly predicted organizational commitment, especially the affective and normative types.


Journal: American Journal of Industrial and Business Management
DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2020.1010105(PDF)
Paper Id: 103335 (metadata)

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Effect of Soil Transplantation to Abandoned Paddy Field on the Conservation of Threatened Hydrophyte Species

Authors: Korehisa Kaneko, Hiroshi Jinguji

Threatened or near threatened hydrophytes, Ottelia alismoides, Monochoria korsakowii, Najas graminea, Najas minor and Chara braunii, appeared in an inundated paddy field after the 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami in Japan. Due to the reconstruction of roads and agricultural restoration efforts implemented following the disaster, the top soil of the paddy field was transplanted to another abandoned paddy field in 2014 to avoid extirpation of the aforementioned species. We then conducted vegetation surveys in July and September from 2014 to 2016. Monochoria korsakowii appeared at the transplantation site from 2014 to 2016, forming a large community in 2016. The volume of this species was significantly higher than that in July 2014 and 2015. Although Ottelia alismoides and Chara braunii appeared in 2014, they were not observed in 2015. Najas graminea and Najas minor were not observed during the vegetation survey, and Salvinia natans and Alisma plantago-aquatica newly appeared at the transplantation site. Our findings suggest that transplantation of surface soil and the seed bank therein to an abandoned paddy field is well suited for the conservation of hygrophytes such as Monochoria korsakowii, Ottelia alismoides and Chara braunii. Preventing disturbances that suppress the growth of herbaceous perennial plants is considered necessary for maintaining the habitats of threatened plant species.


Journal: Agricultural Sciences
DOI: 10.4236/as.2020.1110056(PDF)
Paper Id: 103324 (metadata)

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Current Issues in Software Re-Usability: A Critical Review of the Methodological & Legal Issues

Author: Tariq Saeed

The main objective of this research is to discuss the current legal and methodological issues in the field of software Re-Usability. Though there are enormous online forums discussing such issues via Q&A but this paper is an attempt to raise the awareness about the legal issues, which a software engineer may trap into. The paper discussed the current issues with software reusability within the legal and methodological context. This paper applied an extensive literature review to critically appraise the past studies to come to a collective conclusion. Prior to discussing the issues, the benefits of reuse were mentioned, including the saving of time and cost for users. But legally the reuse of software assets creates complexities for the user in relation to meeting all the licensing requirements and dealing with the liability in case of a breach. Methodologically, there are major barriers to reused software when it comes to technical competence and managerial issues such as a lack of resources. Even when reusing software to save time, and leverage off the specialization of other authors, the end-user must also have the technical expertise to search, adapt and merge these reusable assets into the larger software infrastructure. The review ultimately shows the high barriers still remain to software reuse which could mean that smaller developers and businesses will still be reluctant to fully utilize open-source components to the best advantage.


Journal: Journal of Software Engineering and Applications
DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2020.139014(PDF)
Paper Id: 103273


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Energy Conditions in Palatini Approach to Modified f(R) Gravity

Author: Hamidreza Saiedi

In this paper, we review modified f(R) theories of gravity in Palatini formalism. In this framework, we use the Raychaudhuri’s equation along with the requirement that the gravity is attractive, which holds for any geometrical theory of gravity to discuss the energy conditions. Then, to derive these conditions, we obtain an expression for effective pressure and energy density by considering FLRW metric. To simply express the energy conditions, we write the Ricci scalar and its derivatives in terms of the deceleration (q), jerk (j) and snap (s) parameters. Energy conditions derived in Palatini version of f(R) Gravity differ from those derived in GR. We will see that the WEC (weak energy condition) derived in Palatini formalism has exactly the same expression in its metric approach.


Journal: Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology
DOI: 10.4236/jhepgc.2020.64046

Paper Id: 103212 (metadata)

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Development and Aging Behaviour of Solvent-Based Polychloroprene Rubber Nano-Adhesive Using Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Muhammad Awais, Muhammad Shahid, Mohsin Saleem, Fariz Aneeq,
Muhammad Shoaib Butt, Malik Adeel Umer

Polychloroprene (PC) based contact adhesives are widely used in various applications; however, there is a possibility to improve the properties of PC adhesive. Modifications of polymers can enhance the properties of the material, e.g. increase in thermal stability, compatibility, rigidity, physical response, flexibility and improve the polymer process ability. In the current study, improved formulation of solvent-based adhesive was developed, and the properties were further enhanced by the addition of nano-reinforcement of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The addition of nano-reinforcement was optimized to obtain improvement in the bond strength and also to enhance its resistance at a high temperature (~100°C). This paper discusses the uniform dispersion of MWCNTs during the synthesis of polychloroprene solvent-based adhesive, thereby improving its structural properties. Incorporation of MWCNTs-solvent-based adhesives resulted in a 20% – 35% improvement in 180° peel strength determined on flexible substrates such as canvas, leather. The reinforced based adhesive also exhibited improved thermal stability and weather resistance compared with unreinforced adhesive. The MWCNTs- solvent-based contact adhesives is a potential candidate in an industrially relevant branch of adhesives commonly used in structural applications, e.g., footwear, plastic, leather, automobile, construction industries, etc.


Journal: Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering
DOI: 10.4236/msce.2020.89004(PDF)
Paper Id: 103183 (metadata)

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On the Elementary Mechanical Effects of the Space-Time-Symmetry Relativity

Authors: Mikhail Petelin, Manfred Thumm

This paper is an addendum to the article “On the Evolution of Approaches to the Space- Time Symmetry”, Natural Science, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 81-84, 2018. The analysis is based on the Galileo’s postulate that all inertial reference frames are equal. The postulate results immediately in the absolute speed limit, which is identical for all bodies in all reference frames. Two kinds of elementary particles are admitted: unhurried and restless ones (ex-emplified, accordingly, with electrons and photons). Any particle may be treated as wave packet, the particle mass and momentum depending on the reference frame. Thus, space-time-sym- metry is the natural background for the relativistic and quantum theo-ries.


Journal: Natural Science
DOI: 10.4236/ns.2020.129056(PDF)
Paper Id: 103143 (metadata)

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Diversity and Structure of the Prokaryotic Communities Indigenous to Two Volcanic Lakes: Nyos and Monoun in Cameroon

Authors: Paul-Alain Nana, Moïse Nola, Geneviève Bricheux, Zéphyrin Fokam,
Pierre Ngassam, Dickson Achuo Enah, Jonathan Colombet, Agnès Vellet, Anne Mone,
Viviane Ravet, Didier Debroas, Télesphore Sime-Ngando

This study explores the diversity and structure of prokaryotic communities (Archaea and Bacteria) of 2 tropical volcanic lakes (Nyos and Monoun) in Cameroon, using 16SrRNA sequences. Metagenomics analysis of sequences showed that most OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) were associated with 26 phyla (23 for Bacteria and 3 for Archaea) in Nyos and 36 phyla (33 for Bacteria and 3 for Archaea) in Monoun. In both lakes, Proteobacteria for Bacteria and Crenarchaea for Archaea were predominant and present at all depths but in different proportions. Bacterial community compositions were generally dominated by members of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi and Bacteroidetes covering about 98% of the sequences. Crenarchaea, Thaumarchaea and Euryarchaea were the three main phyla of Archaea common to both lakes. The amount of virus and total bacteria was determined by flow cytometry technic and the evaluated ratio ranged from 0.2 to 1.2 at Nyos and from 0.6 to 2.6 at Monoun. For both lakes, the correlation was very significant between viruses and total bacteria. The depth-dependent variability is discussed with chemical and physical environmental parameters. These could significantly influence virus-mediated bacterial lysis and abundance and vertical stratification of the prokaryotic community.


Journal: Open Journal of Ecology
DOI: 10.4236/oje.2020.109039(PDF)
Paper Id: 103118 (metadata)

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Review of International Supply Chain Risk within Banking Regulations in Asia, US and EU Including Cost Efficiency Proposals

Authors: Vanessa Seipp, Alex Michel, Patrick Siegfried

Major financial institutions operate in different regions of the world facing different regulatory landscapes for Supply Chain risks. In this environment, the optimization issue arises how to best comply with the different regulations and reaching cost efficiency at the same time. In this research, the international regulatory landscape for Supply Chain risks of Financial Institutions is introduced and compared internationally. It is understood as an integral part of Supply Chain Risk Management of Financial Institutions, yet the latter is analysed as the research background. Additionally, expert interviews are conducted in order to link the regulation analysis to the current challenges that Financial Institutions face. Finally, recommendations are developed on how banks can be cost efficient, while remaining regulatory compliant, facing increased international regulation in the area of Supply Chain Risk Management. The outcome of the underlying research shows that banking regulation in the area of Supply Chain risks is an important lever in the banking sector to secure customers and financial markets. However, the regulatory landscape is heterogeneous and not consistent on an international scale. Regulation in Asia is highly diverse across different countries due to different states of economic development. The US applies a rather pragmatical approach towards supply chain risk regulation applying different standards of standard setting institutions. Lastly, the EU is very restrictive and strives to unify regulation across member states. Banks should follow a consistent management approach keeping in mind international locations and the strictest regulatory environment they are operating in, to improve cost efficiency yet being regulatory compliant. Also, collaboration with and amongst regulators and other banks internationally is recommended for improved cost efficiency.


Journal: Journal of Financial Risk Management
DOI: 10.4236/jfrm.2020.93013(PDF)
Paper Id: 103085 (metadata)

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Application of Optical Flow Analysis to Shadowgraph Images of Impinging Jet

Authors: Masato Hijikuro, Masayuki Anyoji

In this study, we apply the optical flow method to the time-series shadowgraph images of impinging jets using a high-speed video camera with high spatial and temporal resolution. This image analysis provides quantitative velocity vector fields in the object space without tracer particles. The analysis results clearly capture the details of the coherent vortex structure and its advection from the shear layer of the free jet. Although the results still leave challenges for the quantitative validation, the results show that this analysis method is effective for understanding the details of the physical phenomenon based on the quantitative values extracted from the shadowgraph images.


Journal: Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization
DOI: 10.4236/jfcmv.2020.84011(PDF)
Paper Id: 103049 (metadata)

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