Behavior of a Jet Issuing Diagonally Upward into Two-Layer Density-Stratified Fluid in a Cylindrical Tank

Authors: Tomohiro Degawa, Shota Fukue, Tomomi Uchiyama, Akira Ishikawa,
Koji Motoyama

This study is concerned with the experimental investigation of a jet issuing diagonally upward into a two-layer density-stratified fluid in a cylindrical tank and the resulting mixing phenomena. The upper and lower fluids are water and an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl), respectively, and the lower fluid issues from a nozzle on the bottom of the tank. The angle between the centerline of the jet and the bottom of the tank is 60°, and the mass concentration of the NaCl solution is 0.02. The investigation reveals that secondary flow is caused by the jet in the horizontal cross-sections of the tank and that it is composed of a pair of vortices. It confirms that the secondary flow at the density interface corresponds to an internal density current. The investigation also clarifies the effect of the Reynolds number of the jet on mixing between the lower and upper fluids.


Journal: Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization
DOI: 10.4236/jfcmv.2017.53004 (PDF)
Paper Id: 77228 (metadata)

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Is There an Association between Social Connectedness, Social Identity, Alcohol Consumption and Mental Health among Young University Students?

Authors: Kristen Hunt, Sharyn Burns

Social connectedness has been identified as a protective factor for a range of health issues however the literature is not conclusive. The high prevalence of hazardous alcohol consumption and mental health problems among university students along with the potential for the university as a setting for health promotion prompted this study. The study aims to explore the association between levels of alcohol consumption, mental health, social connectedness and social identity among university students. Online data were collected from a random sample of university undergraduate students (n = 2506) aged 18 – 24 years old. Outcomes were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, Social Connectedness Scale, Social Identity Scale and measures of paid employment and study (hours), and participation in sports and other clubs. Continue reading

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Data Virtualization with SAP HANA Smart Data Access

Author: Abani Pattanayak

Digital transformation has been corner stone of business innovation in the last decade, and these innovations have dramatically changed the definition and boundaries of enterprise business applications. Introduction of new products/ services, version management of existing products/ services, management of customer/partner connections, management of multi-channel service delivery (web, social media, web etc.), merger/acquisitions of new businesses and adoption of new innovations/technologies will drive data growth in business applications. These datasets exist in different sharing nothing business applications at different locations and in various forms. So, to make sense of this information and derive insight, it is essential to break the data silos, streamline data retrieval and simplify information access across the entire organization. The information access framework must support just-in-time processing capabilities to bring data from multiple sources, be fast and powerful enough to transform and process huge amounts of data quickly, and be agile enough to accommodate new data sources per user needs. This paper discusses the SAP HANA Smart Data Access data-virtualization technology to enable unified access to heterogenous data across the organization and analysis of huge volume of data in real-time using SAP HANA in-memory platform.


Journal: Journal of Computer and Communications
DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2017.58005 (PDF)
Paper Id: 77174 (metadata)

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Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Reaction Diffusion Equation with Time Efficient Scheme

Authors: Shahid Hasnain, Muhammad Saqib, Daoud Suleiman Mashat

This research paper represents a numerical approximation to non-linear two-dimensional reaction diffusion equation from population genetics. Since various initial and boundary value problems exist in two-dimensional reaction-diffusion, phenomena are studied numerically by different numerical methods, here we use finite difference schemes to approximate the solution. Accuracy is studied in term of L2, L and relative error norms by random selected grids along time levels for comparison with exact results. The test example demonstrates the accuracy, efficiency and versatility of the proposed schemes. It is shown that the numerical schemes give better solutions. Moreover, the schemes can be easily applied to a wide class of higher dimension nonlinear reaction diffusion equations with a little modification.


Journal: American Journal of Computational Mathematics
DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2017.72017 (PDF)
Paper Id: 77115 (metadata)

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Functional Cognitive Psychodiagnosis: An Exploratory Examination of a Complementary Tool

Authors: Vitali Tevelev, Yuval Wolf

A major goal of evidence-based psychotherapy is to assess specific cognitive or emotional schemata and behavioral patterns associated with a particular disorder. The present study is an exploratory attempt to form a quantitative basis for this sort of clinical work in terms of Anderson’s Information Integration Theory and the theory’s methodological counterpart-Functional Measurement. The participants of the study’ s three experiments were 24 adolescents who suffer from disruptive behavior disorders, 17 patients who suffer from a dual diagnosis (a combination of substance dependence and psychopathology), and 14 patients diagnosed as suffering from emotional disorders such as anxiety, depression, and panic attacks. The following three types of functional cognitive schemata were diagnosed: bio-psycho-social in the participants with disruptive behavior disorders; addiction in the participants with dual diagnosis, and inner speech schemata in the participants with emotional disorders. The results are presented in terms of the relative importance assigned to the components of each sort of schema. It is concluded that the study’s findings exemplify the viability of the information integration as an infrastructure of a complementary psychodiagnostic tool.


Journal: Psychology
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.88076 (PDF)
Paper Id: 77068 (metadata)

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Evaluation of Standards and Interfering Compounds in the Determination of Phenolics by Folin-Ciocalteu Assay Method for Effective Bioprocessing of Biomass

Authors: Krishna Prasad Bastola, Yadhu Nath Guragain, Vamsi Bhadriraju,
Praveen Venkata Vadlani

Folin Ciocalteu (F-C) assay is the most widely used and convenient method to determine the total phenolics content in foods, herbs, and other plant extracts. Different phenolics standards such as gallic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechol, and vanillic acid have been used for calibration curves in this assay method. Comparison of these standards, in single or combination of two or more, for more accurate determination of phenolics has not been reported so far. This study tested five single phenolics and seven combinations of mixed phenolic standards to evaluate the optimal standards for F-C method. The different standards were tested to calculate the phenolic content in three known test solutions. We also evaluated interference effect of various compounds in phenolics estimation by F-C method that is usually present in the lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugar solution, and in food products along with phenolics. Finally, the optimal standards with five phenolics were used for the determination of phenolics in alkali pretreated biomass extract. The results indicated that gallic acid was the best standard among the single phenolic compounds and five phenolic compounds solution was the best standard among the mixed phenolic solutions. The presence of glucose, HMF, furfural, and vitamin-B12 did not interfere in phenolic determination; whereas ascorbic acid, tyrosine, formic acid, and acetic acid strongly interfered the results. The results also showed that biomass pelleting process did not affect the generation of phenolics in alkali pretreatment extract.


Journal: American Journal of Analytical Chemistry
DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2017.86032 (PDF)
Paper Id: 77036 (metadata)

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Butterflies Extracts Show Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Reuven Rasooly, Miriam Rothschild, Yael Gov, Paul Wolferstan, Robert Nash, Paula Do, Naomi Balaban

Extracts of several British butterfly species were tested and shown to possess powerful bactericidal activity against gram-positive bacteria (tested on Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis). The active compounds in the grass-feeding species were identified as hydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) related to loline with nitrogen at C-1. Lolines are known insecticidal and insect-deterrent compounds that are produced in grasses infected by endophytic fungal symbionts. Lolines also increase resistance of endophyte-infected grasses to insect herbivores. The butterfly-isolated pyrrolizidine alkaloids appear to be novel and non-toxic to human cells such as HaCat human skin keratinocytes and Hep-2 human epithelial cells. The discovery of novel agents from butterflies could lead to the development of new antimicrobials.


Journal: Advances in Microbiology
DOI: 10.4236/aim.2017.76036 (PDF)
Paper Id: 76995 (metadata)

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Value at Risk (VaR) Historical Approach: Could It Be More Historical and Representative of the Real Financial Risk Environment?

Author: Evangelos Vasileiou

The purpose of this paper is to suggest a new approach that improves the conventional Historical Value-at-Risk (HVaR) estimations’ accuracy and can be easily applied by anyone. The main assumption for the newly suggested method is “the more representative to the financial conditions the data inputs are, the better the VaR estimations”. Volatility is assumed to be the criterion for the “representative to the financial conditions” definition. In practice, the newly suggested approach does not use the previous x days observations as data inputs in the estimation process (as the HVaR does), but the last x filtered volatility (fv) observations of a “representative to the current financial conditions dataset”. Depending on the volatility value, each observation is classified in several regimes, from which the VaR is estimated depending on the examined day’s volatility. This way the HVaR approach is more historical. Continue reading

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A Major Change in the Stratigraphy of the Santorini Volcano in Greece

Authors: Walter L. Friedrich, Annette Højen Sørensen, J. Richard Wilson,
Michael Fytikas, Spyridon Pavlides, Samson Katsipis

Two prominent and similar pumice series were described on Thera in 1879—the Upper and Lower Pumice Series (UPS and LPS). Since then, geologists have treated the two series separately because they seemingly occurred at distinct levels and had different ages. Here we show that these two pumice series are identical; there is no LPS on Santorini. All stratigraphic conclusions based on the LPS from Santorini should therefore be discarded. The water-filled Santorini caldera with its steep inner slopes existed before the eruption. Volcano-tectonic effects in connection with caldera formation created concentric terraces that were mantled by the products of the Late Bronze Age (LBA) eruption. Subsequent erosion only left remnants of the mantle behind. Topographic effects followed by slumping during sedimentation caused confusion of the stratigraphy on the caldera wall. Our results are supported by geological, paleontological and archaeological evidence. Furthermore, the caldera with its minerals, pigments, harbours and hot springs was accessible for the Thereans. This reinterpretation opens new perspectives for archaeological research. The catastrophic LBA eruption (previously called the Minoan eruption) destroyed a flourishing culture on Santorini and impacted neighbouring cultures around 1613 BC.


Journal: International Journal of Geosciences
DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2017.86043 (PDF)
Paper Id: 76942 (metadata)

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Some Structural Properties of Dynamically Drawn iPP Fibers

Author: Afaf M. Ali

Changes in the different structural parameters of iPP fibers during the dynamically cold drawing process were characterized. Using the dynamic mechanical cold drawing device attached to Fizeau interference system all the optical and structural properties can be measured. With the aid of this device the effect of the strain rate on the different structure properties was measured. The molecular orientations, molecular polarizability, molar reflectivity and shrinkage stress were measured. Reorientation of the molecules led to a significant variations in the measured structure properties of the drawn iPP fibers during applying the external tension.


Journal: Optics and Photonics Journal
DOI: 10.4236/opj.2017.76011 (PDF)
Paper Id: 76881 (metadata)

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