Beginning of Biodiversity

Microorganism fertilization by cell dividing into two part
Microfossils from the Kumakhin formation.:Microorganism fertilization by cell dividing into two parts;

Life originated on Earth in the form of unicellular microscopic organisms in sedimentary strata that accumulated in shallow-water seas no later then 3.5 billion years ago. These microorganisms are represented by archebacteria, bacteria and cyanobacteria which have no nucleus in the cell. For no less than 2.0 – 2.5 billion years, they were practically the only living microorganisms on Earth. They had a simple morphology which remained unchanged. It was not until 1 billion years ago thatmorphology of microorganisms became more diversified. Paleontologists think it was due to sexual reproduction. But before Dr. P. Kolosov from the Diamond and Precious Metals Geology Institute in Yakutsk presented his results in the Journal “Natural Resources”, 2013, vol.3, there was no well documented evidence in favor

Maternal cell fertilization, resulting in diploid zygote formation. Scale equals 10 mkm
Maternal cell fertilization, resulting in diploid zygote formation. Scale equals 10 mkm.

of a sexual reproduction process at that early stage of life history. With the beginning of a sexual process at 1 Ga, as established by Dr. Kolosov, genetic information (DNA) was transferred from one cell to another, genetic variability of organisms increased, and the evolutionary process accelerated. Sexual reproduction of  organisms played a crucial role in the development of biological diversity on Earth, which makes its greatest wealth now.

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Image Credits: Scientific Research Publishing Natural Resources , 2013 Vol.4

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