“With This Disease, You Take Whatever Chances There Are”—A Study on Socio-Cultural and Psychological Aspects of Experiments Regarding Huntington’s Disease

Author(s): Susanne Lundin, Eva Torkelson, Marsanna Petersen

Although relatively rare, Huntington’s disease (HD) has fatal consequences. There is no cure for the disease, which leads to an early death. Worldwide, scientists are trying to develop therapeutic methods that could cure the disease, including new molecular gene therapeutic methods. At Lund University, research on HD is now about to step from animal models to trials with humans. The project is special in its design since it involves both medical studies and socio-cultural and psychological research to explore and meet the many challenges that experimental trials with HD patients give rise to. The aim of the present study was to investigate the viewpoints of individuals affected by HD on the issues of participation and exerting influence if taking part in a medical study on gene therapy that has not previously been tested on humans. A total of 16 participants, recruited through the national association for HD and through the neurological clinic at Lund University in Sweden, took part in a focus group or in a survey study. A thematic analysis, to explore the transcribed text from the focus groups as well as from the written mail responses, was conducted by means of Nvivo, a program for qualitative data analysis. Continue reading

Posted in OJMP | 4 Comments

The Idea of Perfect Man

Author(s): Mohammad Reza Najjarian


Different religions have one belief in common in that man is not self-existent. It means that his life is basically dependent on an independent central power. This concept was suggested by early religions in the form of the belief that nature has powers, but more advanced religions have a belief in a metaphysical being, who is the creator of the world. Besides human desire for perfection is a common subject that connects different religions to each other although there exist various interpretations about perfection and perfect man. The basis of the western new thought is humanism, in which human is a self-centered one and is not dependent on any greater force; however, in the eastern thought, man and the world are under God’s centrality, moving toward a spiritual goal and a superior world. Continue reading

Posted in OJPP | 1 Comment

Improvement and Innovation Analysis of China Special Express Mode—The Campus Express

Author(s): Xiuli Tang, Fangwen Yang, Rui Wang

This paper analyzes the current situation of the Campus Express mode through the quantitative and qualitative methods to find the deficiencies in the existing model, and puts forward the improvement of the existing Campus Express mode. A new sorting method is adopted in the Campus unified distribution center for improving picking efficiency and solving the problem of “door-to-door” service. At the same time, the Platform of Campus Express—named “Crowdsourcing Express” mode is created, so that everyone can be involved in the activities of Campus Express. The plant can not only provide a better logistics service, but also combine commerce activities with Campus Express.


Journal: Modern Economy
DOI: 10.4236/me.2016.79102 (PDF)
Paper Id: 70000 (metadata)

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Posted in ME | Tagged | 2 Comments

Solar versus Non-Solar Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets—Evaluation of Temperatures inside the Vaults of Different UDDT Systems

Author(s): Constanze Windberg, Ralf Otterpohl

The Urine Diverting Dehydration Toilet (UDDT) is one of a wide range of technologies Ecological Sanitation (Ecosan) offers. A commonly used type is the so called solar UDDT, constructed with inclined vault doors or panels which are usually made from black iron sheets to increase the temperature inside the vaults and therefore would facilitate dehydration and hygienisation. The study aims to give recommendations on the most appropriate system by comparing solar and non-solar UDDT systems. Existing building standards for UDDTs were reviewed, 133 UDDT sites visited and a comparative temperature study of the temperature inside the vaults of different UDDT systems carried out. The temperature study needed to assess if solar UDDTs would actually succeed in raising the temperature inside the vault. Programmed temperature loggers were placed in the vaults of solar and non-solar UDDTs. Continue reading

Posted in JEP | 32 Comments

The Effectiveness of Anger Management Training on Decreasing the Anger of Unsupervised Girl Adolescents

Author(s): Tayebeh Mokhber, Abbas Masjedi, Maryam Bakhtiari

This study aims to study the effectiveness of anger management training on decreasing anger of unsupervised girl adolescents aged 15 – 18 years old of Tehran. This research was an experimental one with plan of pre-test-post-test control group. The statistical universe of this research consisted of all unsupervised girl adolescents aged 15 – 18 years old of Tehran. The sample was 24 unsupervised girl adolescents identified from girls assigned to the two groups: experimental group and control group. Data were collected using the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI-2). Analysis of variance with repeated measure showed that the anger management training significantly decreased anger in the experimental group (P < 0.01). This finding has important implications as regards the education and mental health of adolescents.


Journal: Open Journal of Medical Psychology
DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2016.54008 (PDF)
Paper Id: 71057 (metadata)

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Posted in OJMP | 3 Comments

The Impact of Variation in Bladder Volume on the Doses of Target and Organ-at-Risk in Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

Author(s): Shogo Hatanaka, Yoshito Kawada, Kana Washizu, Nobuko Utsumi, Takafumi Yamano, Keiichiro Nishimura, Tetsuya Watanabe, Katsuhito Hosaka1, Keisuke Todoroki, Go Nakajima, Munefumi Shimbo, Takeo Takahashi

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become the mainstay of treatment for localized prostate cancer. In IMRT, minimizing differences between the conditions used during planning CT and daily treatment is important to prevent adverse events in normal tissues. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of variation in bladder volume on the doses to various organs. A total of 35 patients underwent definitive radiotherapy at Saitama Medical Center. A Light Speed RT16 (GE Healthcare) was used for planning and to obtain examination CT images. Such images were acquired after 4 – 6 days of planning CT image acquisition. The IMRT plans were optimized using the planning CT data to satisfy the dose constraints set by our in-house protocols for the PTV and the OARs. The dose distributions were then re-calculated using the same IMRT beams, and checked on examination CT images. Continue reading

Posted in JCT | 1 Comment

Investigating Road Safety Management Systems in the European Countries: Patterns and Particularities

Author(s): Victoria Gitelman, Etti Doveh

A road safety management (RSM) system can be defined as “a complex institutional structure that involves cooperating and interacting bodies which support the tasks and processes necessary for the prevention and reduction of road traffic injuries”. RSM should promote the road safety progress of the country. However, the details of this relationship are generally lacking. This study explored the RSM systems in European countries based on the information collected through interviews with experts and officials, in each country, and using a “good practice” criteria questionnaire. Continue reading

Posted in JTTs | 1 Comment

Quality of Life, Physical Activity and Risk Behaviors: A Case Study in Mechanical Engineering Students

Author(s): Gustavo Levandoski, Luiz Alberto Pilatti, Paulo Henrique Trombetta Zannin

This paper describes a transversal study involving 296 undergraduate mechanical engineering students, using a descriptive probabilistic approach. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of life quality and physical activity of the participants, comparing them to variables indicative of health risk factors. It was found that 70.6% of the study population evaluated their life quality standard as good or very good. With respect to their level of physical activity, 38.8% of the participants are physically inactive in their leisure time. As for the prevalence of risk factors, 3.7% of them belong to high risk groups: sedentary, overweight, and/or smokers. In addition, the hypothesis of a direct correlation between the level of physical fitness and life quality is confirmed.


Journal: Open Journal of Social Sciences
DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.410002 (PDF)
Paper Id: 71079 (metadata)

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Posted in JSS | 1 Comment

Vitamin D and Bone Health

Author(s): Alberto Falchetti, Elisa Rossi, Roberta Cosso, A. Buffa, Stefania Corvaglia, Nazzarena Malavolta

The vitamin D3 molecule, or cholecalciferol, is now considered a hormone that acts on multiple homeostatic fronts, either skeletal or extra-skeletal. After 100 years since from its identification as a protective and curative factor of rickets, during the last decade the interest in vitamin D among scientists and general public increased substantially and the use of vitamin D supplements has increased nearly exponentially in many countries. The aim of the present review is to clarify the mechanisms of action of vitamin D compounds on bone health through well-known concepts identified, and readily available, in the scientific literature. Continue reading

Posted in FNS | 1 Comment

Safety Impact of Average Speed Control in the UK

Author(s): Harry Lahrmann, Bo Brassøe, Jonas Wibert Johansen, Jens Christian Overgaard Madsen

There is considerable safety potential in ensuring that motorists respect the speed limits. High speeds increase the number and severity of accidents. Technological development over the last 20 years has enabled the development of systems that allow automatic speed control. The first generation of automatic speed control was point-based, but in recent years a potentially more effective alternative automatic speed control method has been introduced. This method is based upon records of drivers’ average travel speed over selected sections of the road and is normally called average speed control or section control. This article discusses the different methods for automatic speed control and presents an evaluation of the safety effects of average speed control, documented through changes in speed levels and accidents before and after the implementation of average speed control at selected sites in the UK. The study demonstrates that the introduction of average speed control results in statistically significant and substantial reductions both in speed and in number of accidents. The evaluation indicates that average speed control has a higher safety effect than point-based automatic speed control.


Journal: Journal of Transportation Technologies
DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2016.65028 (PDF)
Paper Id: 70932 (metadata)

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Posted in JTTs | Tagged | 1 Comment