Author(s): Elhashmi Y. Hilal, Mohamed A. E. Elkhairey, Ayman O. A. Osman
Trace minerals are dietary elements required by the body in minute amounts, ranging from 0.10 to 50.0 mg/kg dry matter in beef cattle diets. These trace minerals are all necessary for the biochemical processes of the body that support proper growth and maintenance. For example, Cu is necessary for the function of superoxide dismutase and its removal of toxic byproducts from metabolic pathways. The removal of these toxic byproducts allows for metabolism to proceed efficiently, uninhibited by damaging oxygen free radicals. Zinc, an important trace mineral for enzyme function, aides in the regulation of nucleic acid production, carbohydrate metabolism, and protein synthesis, thus providing a stable framework for development. The immune system is part of the host’s defense against destructive forces from outside the body, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites, or from within, such as malignant cells or those that produce autoantibodies. This system is composed of two branches: the innate or non-specific immune system, and the adaptive or specific immune system. In this review paper, an attempt has been made to review effects of mineral supplements in Rumen Metabolism, effects on Immune Function in different species of animals.
See also: Comments to Paper