The Electromagnetic Particle—A Backward Engineering Approach to Matter in SI Units

Author: Tobias Bartusch

This article describes the properties of the free elementary particles from an electromagnetic approach in SI units. The analysis is done from a backward engineering approach for the structural analysis. This also includes the origin of charge, which is modelled from a single photon and the pairing effect. Then the necessary implications for a stable particle including an explanation of the inner particle force and the quantization condition for the radius of the electron are handled. Furthermore, the properties of the myon, tauon, proton, neutron and black holes will be extrapolated and a possible reason for the mass oscillation of the Neutrino will be shown also. In addition, a possible explanation for the occurrence of matter free mass based on an EM-mass equation will be explained and will suggest an obviously resulting augmentation to the special relativity theory and finally the analytical approach of the theory is compared to the CODATA values and astronomic data for black holes.


Journal: Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology
DOI: 10.4236/jhepgc.2020.64052(PDF)
Paper Id: 103645


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Reformed Environmental Impact Assessment in China: An Evaluation of Its Effectiveness

Author: Yang Yang

Since 2015, a “reform storm” of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) opened up in China. This study tries to answer the question of whether these reforms improve the effectiveness of EIA. First, we elaborate on the reforms along with three well-acknowledged components, including EIA legislation, administration, and process. Then, evaluate the reformed EIA system against revised Ahmad and Wood’s criteria. The results demonstrate that the revised laws and regulations are more stringent than the old versions. The EIA process is simplified, and its coordination with the pollutant discharge permit system is promoted. The interim and post-event supervision is currently more robust and the penalties are more severe than before. However, the hierarchical position of the Environmental Protection Law is not high enough and the coordination of different government departments is still challenging. In summary, despite the problems occurring at the initial phase of reforms, the effectiveness of the EIA system has largely been improved.


Journal: Journal of Environmental Protection
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2020.1110056(PDF)
Paper Id: 103618 (metadata)

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Challenges of Anticoagulation in Total Joint Arthroplasty

Authors: Anshul Sobti, Ashwin Unnithan

Aggressive anticoagulation following total joint arthroplaty (TJA) is well known to increase the risk of both wound leakage and hematoma formation. Despite this there are no guidelines for orthopaedic surgeons undertaking major primary and revision surgery in patients with high risk of venous thromboembolic events, who may present with complications directly linked to anticoagulant use. Hence the authors felt the need for this narrative review. They have tried to answer few questions that are commonly faced in clinical practice. Balanced anticoagulation is a difficult task to achieve. The potential consequences of over anticoagulation on the outcome of TJA and revision TJA are live changing and devastating. On the contrary falling short of adequate anticoagulation is fatal leading to recurrent thromboembolic events. Robust risk stratification tools and a multidisciplinary approach are certainly the way forward. There is an urgent need for specialty specific guidelines for managing patient on anticoagulation undergoing TJA, and revision arthroplasty procedures.


Journal: Open Journal of Orthopedics
DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2020.1010029(PDF)
Paper Id: 103593 (metadata)

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Effectiveness and Influencing Factors of Comprehensive Rehabilitation Therapy in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

Authors: Xiaoli Wu, Lu Zhang, Yudong Chen, Hanzhi Li, Lingyu Yang, Fei Gao, Yuqi Yang, Xueyan Hu, Changqing Ye, Yuge Zhang, Lei Shan, Lixu Liu, Tong Zhang

This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of comprehensive rehabilitation for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and to explore the factors influencing the prognosis of rehabilitation. This was a retrospective study. Twenty-five patients with aSAH were treated with physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, cognitive therapy, music therapy, Chinese acupuncture, hyperbaric oxygen, and transcranial magnetic stimulation. The general data of all patients were collected, and the functional scores at admission were compared with those at discharge. The Mini Mental State Examination, Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale (FMAS) for motor and balance assessment, Holden Functional Ambulation Classification (FAC), modified Rankin Scale, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, Modified Barthel Index for activities of daily living (ADL), and Glasgow Outcome Scale were significantly improved among 25 patients with aSAH after 1 month of comprehensive rehabilitation training. Hydrocephalus was an independent factor of the ability to perform ADLs (odds ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 2.03. 3.15; p = 0.000). The improvement of ADLs in aSAH patients was not related to sex, surgical method, aneurysm location, age, or smoking status. Comprehensive and professional rehabilitation is effective for the cognition, movement, walking, ADLs, and functional prognosis of patients with aSAH, while early hydrocephalus may be a risk factor for poor ADLs.


Journal: Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science
DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2020.1010024(PDF)
Paper Id: 103529 (metadata)

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Examination of Urinary Chlorpyrifos Biomarker Concentrations and Heart Rate in a Sample of US Children and Adolescents

Authors: Alex LeBeau, Desirae Sutherland, Marie Bourgeois, Jeffrey Driver, Raymond Harbison

Objective: The purpose of the investigation is to determine if a relationship exists between heart rate and urinary biomarkers of chronic, subacute chlorpyrifos pesticide exposure in youth. Methods: Using 2001-2002 NHANES data, a sample of 1233 children ages 6 – 18 was grouped based on detection status of 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol (TCPy) in urine. Radial pulse and brachial pulse were recorded as measures of heart rate by physicians. T-tests and linear regression analyses were performed to test for associations between TCPy concentrations and heart rate. Results: None of the associations between TCPy levels and heart rate outcomes were found to be significant. Nonsignificant effects in the TCPy-detected groups included a slightly reduced heart rate in girls, as well as a slightly elevated heart rate in boys when compared to the undetected controls. Neither was there any significant observable difference in heart rate due to detection status in the sample overall. Conclusions: At this time, an effect on heart rate attributable to chronic, low-level chlorpyrifos exposure in youth cannot be determined. Children and adolescents detected did not demonstrate a substantial change in pulse measures when compared to controls. It is recommended that subsequent studies examine chlorpyrifos biomarkers as they may relate to other indicators of cardiovascular health.


Journal: Occupational Diseases and Environmental Medicine
DOI: 10.4236/odem.2020.84013(PDF)
Paper Id: 103490 (metadata)

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Investigation of Changes in the Fine Structure of Graphitizing Carbon Materials during Heat Treatment by X-Ray Diffraction Analysis

Authors: Vasiliy A. Tyumentsev, Alfiya G. Fazlitdinova

The properties of synthetic graphite materials, widely used in advanced fields, are determined by their structure, which is formed in the process of high-temperature (~2500°C) heat treatment. The fine structure of a graphitizing carbon material based on petroleum coke containing 1.3 wt% S at various stages of graphitization was studied by X-ray diffraction analysis. Some of the samples contained the addition of dispersed Fe2O3. It is shown that the heat-treated material in the range 1200°C – 2600°C is heterogeneous, its component composition is determined by the processing temperature and the presence of Fe2O3 additive. The observed dependence of the component composition on the heat treatment temperature suggests that the process of graphitization of the carbon material, apparently, develops through a number of metastable states.


Journal: Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering
DOI: 10.4236/msce.2020.810002(PDF)
Paper Id: 103468 (metadata)

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Modeling the Influence of Climate Factors on Malaria Transmission Dynamics in North Kordofan State, Sudan

Author: Hamid H. Hussien

Background: Despite great efforts by the government to control malaria in Sudan, the disease is the most significant human disease and was widespread in North Kordofan State. Morbidity and mortality of the disease are increasing in the State. Usually, the disease reached its peak after rainy season. This study aims to estimate the role of climate factors on malaria transmission dynamic by modeling the relationship between malaria cases and climatic variables, such as rainfall, relative humidity, and temperature, in Kordofan State. Methods: We used Pearson correlation coefficient and an ordinary least square method to assess this relationship. Results: The results show that there are statistically significant associations between malaria cases and rainfall, relative humidity, and minimum temperature (P-value < 0.001). The regression analysis results suggest that the appropriate model for predicting malaria incidence includes malaria cases lagged by one month, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature. This model explained 72% of the variance in monthly malaria incidence. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that climatic factors have potential use for malaria prediction in the State.


Journal: Advances in Infectious Diseases
DOI: 10.4236/aid.2020.105017(PDF)
Paper Id: 103445 (metadata)

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The Head-Fake Effect in Basketball Is Based on the Processing of Head Orientation, but Not on Gaze Direction

Authors: Matthias Weigelt, Iris Güldenpenning, Yvonne Steggemann-Weinrich

The head fake in basketball has been used as a paradigmatic example to investigate the cognitive mechanisms of deceptive actions in sports. When a player looks to one side while passing the ball to the opposite side, responses of the observer are slower and more error prone than when the player looks into the pass direction. It is not known if this head-fake effect is based on the processing of the action-irrelevant gaze direction or on the head orientation, or on both. Three experiments were designed to examine the impact of these two different sources of information conflict during the processing of head fakes in basketball. In Experiment 1, the size of the head-fake effect was not reduced when the eyes of the player were covered. In Experiment 2a and 2b, the relative influence of gaze direction and head orientation was disentangled. In both experiments, the head-fake effect remained fully present when only the head orientation was changed while the eyes gazed into the pass direction, whereas (vice versa) the effect was (almost) gone when the eyes looked away while the head was oriented into the pass direction. These findings suggest that the head-fake effect in basketball is based on the automating processing of the head orientation, but not on the (otherwise socially important) gaze information.


Journal: Psychology
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2020.1110095(PDF)
Paper Id: 103433 (metadata)

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Generation of Multipartite Entangled States Using Switchable Coupling of Cooper-Pair-Boxes

Authors: Stefan J. Rinner, Tindaro Pittorino

We propose a scheme for a switchable coupling between several Cooper-pair boxes in the charge regime. The switch is embodied in a SQUID element contained in the center conductor of a transmission-line resonator. Altering the flux bias through the SQUID allows for changing the effective resonator length. Thus the position of the nodes and anti-nodes of the relevant eigenmodes changes and leads to a variable interaction strength between qubit and cavity vacuum field. For the coupled qubits the interaction is dispersive. An example for the application of this switch is the generation of multipartite entangled states for three and four charge qubits. Although used as a discrete switch in the present proposal, the combined system of SQUID module integrated into the transmission line may be operated continuously as well.


Journal: Journal of Modern Physics
DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2020.1110093(PDF)
Paper Id: 103386 (metadata)

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Turbulence Intensity Effects on a Leading-Edge Separation Bubble of Flat Plate Wing at Low-Reynolds Numbers

Authors: Katsuya Kajiwara, Masayuki Anyoji

In this study, we experimentally investigate the effects of mainstream turbulence intensity (Ti) on a leading-edge separation bubble under low-Reynolds number (Rec) conditions range of 2.0 × 104 to 6.0 × 104. We used a flat plate to fix a separation point at the leading edge. Also, we visualized the behavior of the leading-edge separation bubble using the smoke wire technique and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurement. Furthermore, we measured the effect of Ti on the turbulent transition process in the separated shear layer using a hot-wire anemometer. The results indicate that the bypass transition for large Ti causes the turbulent transition, and so accelerates the reattachment of the separated shear layer. The results show that the bypass transition promotes the reattachment of the separated shear layer to maintain the leading-edge separation bubble on the upper surface even at high angles of attack, increasing the stall angle.


Journal: Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization
DOI: 10.4236/jfcmv.2020.84012(PDF)
Paper Id: 103371 (metadata)

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