The Ability of Lysate-PRF Induces Proliferation of Fibroblast Cells in Endodontic Regenerative Therapy

Author: Ratna Meidyawati, Endang Suprastiwi

Lysate-platelet rich fibrin (Lysate-PRF) is a scaffold that contains growth factor. Aim: To analyze the ability of two types of Lysate-PRF in inducing the proliferation of fibroblast cells. Material & Methods: Microplate with 24 wells each filled 200 μl suspension DMEM + 10% FBS and 10 × 104 fibroblasts. Then FBS is replaced with a concentration of 1%, for serum starvation process. Each 3 wells were exposed with 50%, 25%, 12.5% Lysate-PRF and 50%, 25%, 12.5% Lysate A-PRF respectively. Three other wells are exposed to 10% FBS. Microplate was incubated for 24 hour at 37°C with 5% CO2. The growth of fibroblast was calculated by automatic cell counter. Results: The highest mean value of the Lysate-PRF group was at 12.5% (312.833) while the Lysate A-PRF group at 25% (303.500). If all the groups compared did not show any significant differences. Conclusions: Lysate-PRF and Lysate A-PRF have the same ability as 10% FBS in inducing fibroblast cell proliferation or the same as physiological condition.


Journal: Open Journal of Stomatology
DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2018.85017 (PDF)
Paper Id: 84716 (metadata)

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On the Design of Effective E-Commerce Applications: An ISO-Based Lifecycle Model

Author: Antonia Stefani

The provision of services as e-commodities and the wide use of networked business models have driven buyer experience to new heights. Innovation, coupled with quality is the competitive advantage e-commerce vendors strive to achieve when designing or re-designing their software. In terms of quality, evaluation stood in the spotlight for many years. However, software analysis and design based on quality models have been used mostly for understanding, rather than improving. In this work, we present a new model for the analysis and design of e-commerce software systems mapped to the software life-cycle process. Quality control procedures are mapped to every phase, from initiation and design to delivery. Based on current ISO standards such as ISO25000 series, this work discusses technical and managerial principles that need to be applied in order to obtain quality e-commerce software.


Journal: Journal of Computer and Communications
DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2018.65002 (PDF)
Paper Id: 84659 (metadata)

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Inverse Problems for an Euler-Bernoulli Beam: Identification of Bending Rigidity and External Loads

Author: Hiroaki Katori

We present a method for identifying the flexural rigidity and external loads acting on a beam using the finite-element method. We used mixed beam elements possessing transverse deflection and the bending moment as the primary degrees of freedom. The first step is to determine the bending moment from the transverse deflection and boundary conditions. The second step is to substitute the bending moment into the final equations with respect to the unknown parameters (flexural rigidity or external load). The final step solves the resulting system of equations. We apply this method to some inverse beam problems and provide an accurate estimation. Several numerical examples are performed and show that present method gives excellent results for identifying bending stiffness and distributed load of beam.


Journal: World Journal of Mechanics
DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2018.85014 (PDF)
Paper Id: 84631 (metadata)

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Bernoulli Weather or Not?

Author: Kern E. Kenyon

Thirty five day records of wind speed and atmospheric pressure, measured and recorded every two hours, were obtained on a ship that sailed from California to Japan along latitude 35 N in the spring of 1976. Time variations of two days, which can be seen in the raw data of both variables, were brought out more clearly by a two-step smoothing process followed by a subtraction to reduce both the lower and higher frequencies. Comparing the two similarly processed records shows that when the wind speed is relatively strong, the pressure is relatively weak, and vice versa, at the two day time scale. An argument is given that Bernoulli’s law was operating in those weather systems.


Journal: Natural Science
DOI: 10.4236/ns.2018.105019 (PDF)
Paper Id: 84595 (metadata)

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Peculiar Set-Retarding Effect of Miserly Amounts of Pyrocatechol on Calcium Aluminate Cement Hydration

Authors: Alexey Brykov, Mikhail Voronkov, Olga Nekrasova, Maxim Mokeev

Pyrocatechol (benzene-1,2-diol) acts upon a calcium aluminate cement (CAC) as a very strong set and hardening retardant and a potent plasticizing agent at the same time. By studying CAC-pyrocatechol compositions using different analytical methods it was shown that pyrocatechol indeed slows CAC hydration and decreases strength of hardening stone. What makes this behavior a peculiar one is that pyrocatechol is known to accelerate Portland cement (PC) setting drastically.


Journal: Materials Sciences and Applications
DOI: 10.4236/msa.2018.95031

Paper Id: 84557 (metadata)

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Definitions and Measurement of Social Exclusion—A Conceptual and Methodological Review

Author: Carsten Kronborg Bak

Poverty and inequality have long been the dominant categories to describe people’s living conditions, and they continue to reflect significant problems in Danish society, even though the risk of poverty in Denmark is low compared to other European countries. However, during the 1990s, social exclusion, as a “new” concept, has in many ways drawn attention away from poverty. The article raises the question of what social exclusion can contribute with as a concept and in what way it differs from other key concepts, for example, poverty and social capital. The overall aim of the article is to provide a broad overview analysis of a number of key scientific definitions. In addition, selected quantitative and qualitative studies on social exclusion, to problematize the lack of empirical studies of social exclusion using direct measures for social exclusion, are included. Far too often, this results in the raising of questions about to what extent it is social exclusion or other related terms being “measured” in various empirical studies. Mental health is used in the discussion on “measurement” of social exclusion as a critical case to point out shortcomings in existing empirical studies and to inject nuance into the discussion of information from qualitative studies on causal processes behind social exclusion.


Journal: Advances in Applied Sociology
DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2018.85025 (PDF)
Paper Id: 84529 (metadata)

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Projection Methods and the Curse of Dimensionality

Authors: Burkhard Heer, Alfred Maußner

We study the ability of three different projection methods to solve high-dimensional state space problems: Galerkin, collocation, and least squares projection. The curse of dimensionality can be reduced substantially for both Least Squares and Galerkin projection methods through the use of monomial formulas. Least Squares are shown to require a good initial value in order to give an accurate solution. Alternatively, we suggest a new ad hoc collocation method for complete polynomials that is fast and easy to implement.


Journal: Journal of Mathematical Finance
DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2018.82021 (PDF)
Paper Id: 84373 (metadata)

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The Happiness Cost of Air Pollution

Author: Feng Chen

This paper chooses the air quality index (AQI) as the main measure of air pollution, using the relevant data of CGSS (2013) to analyze the impact of air pollution and subjective well-being of residents. In the end, the paper is based on the above research in order to analysis the willingness to pay for air quality improvement, and help the government put forward the corresponding policy suggestions.


Journal: Low Carbon Economy
DOI: 10.4236/lce.2018.92005 (PDF)
Paper Id: 84352 (metadata)

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Modeling and Optimization of Galena Dissolution in Hydrochloric Acid: Comparison of Central Composite Design and Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Ikechukwu A. Nnanwube, Okechukwu D. Onukwuli, Sunday U. Ajana

Response surface methodology (RSM) and Artificial neural network (ANN) were used for the simulation and optimization of galena dissolution in hydrochloric acid. The galena ore was characterized for structure elucidation using FTIR, SEM and X-ray diffraction spectroscopic techniques and the results indicate that the galena ore exists mainly as lead sulphide (PbS). A feed-forward neural network model with Leverberg-Marquardt back propagating training algorithm was used to predict the response (lead yield). The leaching temperature, acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio, stirring rate and leaching time were defined as input variables, while the percentage yield of lead was labelled as output variable. The multilayer perceptron with architecture of 5-9-1 provided the best performance. All the process variables were found to have significant impact on the response with p-values of <0.0001. The performance of the RSM and ANN model showed adequate prediction of the response, with AAD of 0.750% and 0.295%, and R2 of 0.991 and 1.00, respectively. A non-dominated optimal response of 85.25% yield of lead at 343.96 K leaching temperature, 3.11 M hydrochloric acid concentration, 0.021 g/ml solid/liquid ratio, 362.27 rpm stirring speed and 87.37 min leaching time was established as a viable route for reduced material and operating cost using RSM.


Journal: Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering
DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2018.63021 (PDF)
Paper Id: 84335 (metadata)

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The Concept of “Developing Countries” in the Context of the WTO Fisheries Subsidies Negotiation

Author: Youngjeen Cho

This paper explores the concept of developing countries in the context of the WTO DDA fisheries subsidies negotiations. It raises a question whether the concept of developing countries that is widely used in other WTO agreement should be applicable to the new disciplines on fisheries subsidies. In order to address the question, this paper outlines the history of the DDA fisheries subsidies negotiations and discusses the goal of fisheries subsidies negotiations. Then, it presents the concept of developing countries in the GATT, the WTO and other international institutions, and finds that it is almost exclusively based on economic indicators. Then, it reviews global fish production and the amount of global fisheries subsidies. On the basis of its analysis, this paper finds that, in order to achieve the proposed goal of the new disciplines on fisheries subsidies, and to strike a balance between the environmental and the developmental dimensions of fisheries subsidies, the concept of “developing countries” in the context of fisheries subsidies should be different from that in other WTO agreements. It should not include countries that have leading fishing industry for which the governments provide large amount of subsidies, in particular, fishing capacity-enhancing subsidies.


Journal: Beijing Law Review
DOI: 10.4236/blr.2018.92010 (PDF)
Paper Id: 84289 (metadata)

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