Engaging Indigenous Youth in Science with the High-Altitude Balloon Experiment

Authors: Stephen Cheng, Fidji Gendron, Vincent Ziffle, David Gerhard

ABSTRACT
Our custom high-altitude balloon experiment kit with the complete set of instructions has been successfully used to engage high school and post-secondary students across Canada. This article describes how the high-altitude balloon experiment was adapted to engage Indigenous students from two on-reserve schools in science with the presence of an Elder. Based on the results from our research, while the balloon experiment is an effective tool to engage Indigenous students, the project doesn’t change the participants’ interest in science. We are making several suggestions to bring the experiment to its full potential. It would be more beneficial to make the high-altitude balloon experiment as a multi-day workshop or a major component of a science summer camp. Further, it would be more effective to integrate the balloon experiment into the high school science curriculum rather than run it as an independent event in the on-reserve schools. Finally, we are suggesting how student participation of the survey can be improved for on-reserve schools.

Source:

Journal: Creative Education
DOI: 10.4236/ce.2019.102026(PDF)
Paper Id: 90617 (metadata)

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Effects of Elasticity on Wall Shear Stress in Patient-Specific Aneurysm of Cerebral Artery

Authors: Ryuhei Yamaguchi, Taihei Kotani, Gaku Tanaka, Simon Tupin, Kahar Osman, Nadia Shaira Shafii, Ahmad Zahran Md Khudzari, Kazuhiro Watanabe, Hitomi Anzai, Atsushi Saito, Makoto Ohta

ABSTRACT
The behavior of wall shear stress (WSS) was previously reported in a deformable aneurysm model using fluid-structure interactions. However, these findings have not been validated. In the present study, we examined the effect of elasticity (i.e., deformation) on wall shear stress inside a cerebral aneurysm at the apex of a bifurcation using particle image velocimetry in vitro. The flow model simulated a human patient-specific aneurysm at the apex of the bifurcation of the middle cerebral artery. Flow characteristics by wall elasticity were examined for both elastic and non-deformable aneurysm models with pulsatile blood flow. The absolute temporally- and spatially-averaged WSS along the bleb wall was smaller in the elastic model than that in the non-deformable model. This small WSS may be related to attenuation of the WSS. Further, the WSS gradient had a finite value near the stagnation point of the aneurysm dome. Finally, the WSS gradient near the stagnation point was slightly smaller in the elastic model than that in the non-deformable model. These data suggest that elasticity of the aneurysm wall can affect the progression and rupture of aneurysms via hemodynamic stress.

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Journal: Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization
DOI: 10.4236/jfcmv.2019.72006(PDF)
Paper Id: 90571 (metadata)

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Performance Analysis of Dynamic Threshold Estimation Techniques Based on the One-Tier Cognitive Radio Network

Authors: Aditi Gupta, Adeiza James Onumanyi

ABSTRACT
Cognitive Radios (CRs) use dynamic threshold estimation (DTE) techniques to better detect primary user signals under noise uncertainty regimes. However, DTE techniques have rarely been compared before, particularly under the one tier CR network (CRN) model, making it difficult to assess their comparative performance characteristics under this regime. Thus, in this paper, we have investigated the performance of some notable DTE methods under the one-tier CRN model. We used the auction game model in our investigation to compare fairly the spectrum efficiency performance of each technique. Our findings show that DTEs generally perform better than the fixed threshold method particularly under unpredictable noise uncertainty regimes. Our results show further that the channel utilization (CU) rate of the fixed threshold method, popularly used by researchers, plummets by 50.26% for a 1 dB increase in the noise uncertainty level, while the CU rate of the DTE techniques interestingly increased by an average of 4%. Our investigation will enable CR Engineers to better understand the performance characteristics of DTE techniques under the one-tier CRN model.

Source:

Journal: Journal of Computer and Communications
DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2019.72003

(PDF)
Paper Id: 90545 (metadata)

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Antimicrobial Characteristics of Untreated Wood: Towards a Hygienic Environment

Authors: Muhammad Tanveer Munir, Hélène Pailhories, Matthieu Eveillard,
Florence Aviat, Didier Lepelletier, Christophe Belloncle, Michel Federighi

ABSTRACT
Wood, as a contact surface, has been used for centuries but is usually questioned because of its porosity and organic composition. It has natural antimicrobial properties and, hygienically, can stand the comparison with other materials such as plastic, glass and steel. In this review, we focused on potential microbe-inhibiting properties of wooden surfaces being used in hygienically important places like health institutes and food industries. This article addresses the questionable properties of untreated wood like hygroscopicity, porosity, roughness and chemical composition, and their relation to the hygienic and antimicrobial nature of this material. The other factors linked to the hygienic properties of wood, such as age, species and type of wood, have also been discussed. Our analysis of literature will create better understanding for acceptance of wood as a safety renewable resource. It also provides an outline for future research considering wood material in critical healthcare or food industries.

Source:

Journal: Health
DOI: 10.4236/health.2019.112014(PDF)
Paper Id: 90527 (metadata)

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Effects of Rotation on Turbulence Production

Authors: Alan S. Hsieh, Sedat Biringen

ABSTRACT
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of non-rotating and rotating turbulent channel flow were conducted. The data base obtained from these DNS simulations was used to investigate the prominent coherent structures involved in the turbulence generation cycle. Predictions from three theoretical models concerning the formation and evolution of sublayer streaks, three-dimensional hairpin vortices and propagating plane waves were validated using visualizations from the present DNS data. Quadrant analysis was used to determine a phase shift between the fluctuating streamwise and wall-normal velocities as a characteristic of turbulence production in the suction region at a low rotation number.

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Journal: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics
DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2019.72024(PDF)
Paper Id: 90495 (metadata)

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Determination of Copper Price Expectations in the International Market: Some Important Variables

Authors: Andre Assis de Salles*orcid, Raphael Sebastian Magrath,
Matheus Manzani Malheiros

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this work is to identify variables that are relevant to the copper price setting in the international market. Thus statistical hypothesis tests and statistical tools that help to identify historical relevance and to measuring the intensity of the impact of each variable on the copper price on several time horizons was applied. At the end, a regression model that aims to assess the combined effect of the considered time series was estimated. The global industrial production and the aluminum price showed the greatest evidences of being relevant to the copper price. The results suggest that copper stocks, foreign exchange rates and crude oil price should also be considered.

Source:

Journal: Open Journal of Business and Management
DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2019.72024

(PDF)
Paper Id: 90465 (metadata)

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Optimization of Municipal Solid Waste Management of Bins Using GIS. A Case Study: Nuseirat City

Authors: Maher A. El-Hallaq, Rami Mosabeh

ABSTRACT
Solid Waste Management, SWM, is an integral part of public health and environmental control. Improper SWM leads to both economic and environmental sufferings. Almost all factors related to solid waste management have both spatial and non-spatial components. Thus, traditional ways of storing and analyzing data keep data in an isolated form, which results in an inefficient management system. This research aims to optimize municipal solid waste management of bins using GIS. Nuseirat City is chosen as a case study to evaluate SWM of recycle bins to allow the collection process to get less cost and less time as well as to determine the best routes for the trucks to collect the bins. Using Location-Allocation technique, the study indicates that 50 bins from the existing 222 bins do not meet the required selection criteria and need to be re-distributed. It also shows that there are many areas which are not serviced and that the existing bins do not cover all areas in Nuseirat. Nuseirat municipality needs to supply 173 bins besides the existing bins in order to fully cover the city. Moreover, the best tracks to be followed by vehicles that will reduce the financial cost using Vehicle Routing Problem Analysis are determined using GIS network analysis. It is recommended the use of GIS in the administration, especially the management of solid waste and the consideration of it mainly in the general system of municipalities working in the Gaza Strip. Extensive attention should be focused on the collection of solid waste because it is important in the development of cities and it gives a wonderful cultural landscape.

Source:

Journal: Journal of Geographic Information System
DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2019.111003(PDF)
Paper Id: 90458 (metadata)

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Determination and Validation of HPTLC Method for Cinacalcet Hydrochloride

Authors:Swetha Kamatham, Ciddi Veeresham

ABSTRACT
Cinacalcet Hydrochloride (CIN) is a new calcimimetic agent indicated for the use in hypercalcemia. The present work is aimed at development and validation of a novel and simple high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the analysis of Cinacalcet Hydrochloride (active pharmaceutical ingredient, API. In the method, Aluminum-backed silica gel 60 F254 plates (10 × 10 cm) were used as stationary phase and chloroform: acetonitrile (6:4, v/v) as the mobile phase, which showed compact bands of Cinacalcet HCl (RF 0.30 ± 0.02). Quantitative analysis was carried out by densitometry at a wavelength of 282 nm. Linear regression analysis for the calibration spots showed good correlation ship with regression co-efficient r2 = 0.9994 in the range of 40 – 160 ng/band. The developed method suitability for quantification of CIN was learned by validating it as per the ICH guidelines. CIN detection limit was 0.48 ng/band and the quantification limit was 1.59 ng/band. The proposed method was found to be linear (r2 = 0.999), precise (%RSD < 2% for intraday and intermediate precision), accurate, specific, and robust. Further, the developed method was validated and found suitable for stress induced studies, since presence of degradants has no effect on CIN estimation. The proposed method was found to be simple, sensitive, precise, accurate and reproducible for the estimation of CIN.

Source:

Journal: American Journal of Analytical Chemistry
DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2019.102005(PDF)
Paper Id: 90449 (metadata)

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Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns of Urine and Biofilms in Patients with Indwelling Urinary Catheter in Denden Hospital, Asmara, Eritrea

Authors: Lia Alem, Salih Mohammed, Mohammed Elfatih A. I. Humida,
Berzelin Adugna, Feven G. Medhin, Temesgen Weldu

ABSTRACT
The intricate infections leading to long-term morbidity of catheterized patients are due to the presence of a covering and blocking the lumen of urinary catheters by biofilms which have increased ability of resistance to host immune system and antibiotic treatment. The biofilm mode of growth is a basic survival strategy implemented by bacteria in a wide range of settings such as environmental, industrial and clinical aquatic settings. Bacterial growth on the inner surface of the catheter with biofilm formation is frequent and may occur within days of catheter placement. This study investigated the formation of biofilm inside catheter lumen of patients from Denden hospital, Asmara, Eritrea. And also, it assessed the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of biofilm isolates and compared it with urine isolates. Resistance to antibiotics was observed in biofilm isolates more than urine isolates. E. coli was the most frequently isolated organism in both biofilm and urine samples.

Source:

Journal: Advances in Microbiology
DOI: 10.4236/aim.2019.92010(PDF)
Paper Id: 90444 (metadata)

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The Psychosocial Risks in Workplace as a Category in Research. Comparative Diagnosis

Author:Monika Budnik

ABSTRACT
Article presents the issue of psychosocial risks from perspective diversity on culture context. This context is socially appointed through the meanings by using and conceptualization notions, legitimizing these concepts of notion in the law and through studying phenomena through tools to adequately measure the scale of occurrence of a given psychosocial threat. The main idea of this article focuses on the social constructing concepts and definitions reproduced in the society through: using the notion of psychosocial hazards, different methods and research techniques in the social sciences themselves to explore these phenomena, the different scale of the declared occurrence of social threats to the culturally diverse dimensions of national cultures. Presented areas of psychosocial risks from European perspective, contain differentiated standards which are used in theory and research. Moreover the short article presents the diverse needs of measurement methods adequate for the broad frameworks of psychosocial risks such as mobbing, harcèlement moral, stress and presenteeism.

Source:

Journal: Open Journal of Social Sciences
DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.72004(PDF)
Paper Id: 90423 (metadata)

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