Development and Evaluation of an Optical Sensing System for Detection of Herbicide Spray Droplets

Authors: Yanbo Huang, Wei Ma, Daniel Fisher

ABSTRACT
Real time monitoring of herbicide spray droplet drift is important for crop production management and environmental protection. Existing spray droplet drift detection methods, such as water-sensitive paper and tracers of fluorescence and Rubidium chloride, are time-consuming and laborious, and the accuracies are not high in general. Also, the tracer methods indirectly quantify the spray deposition from the concentration of the tracer and may change the drift characteristics of the sprayed herbicides. In this study, a new optical sensor system was developed to directly detect the spray droplets without the need to add any tracer in the spray liquid. The system was prototyped using a single broadband programmable LED light source and a near infrared sensor containing 6 broadband spectral detectors at 610, 680, 730, 760, 810, and 860 nm to build a detection system for monitoring and analysis of herbicide spray droplet drift. A rotatory structure driven by a stepper motor in the system was created to shift the droplet capture line going under the optical sensor to measure and collect the spectral signals that reflect spray drift droplets along the line. The system prototype was tested for detection of small (Very Fine and Fine), medium (Medium), and large (Coarse) droplets within the droplet classifications of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. Laboratory testing results indicated that the system could detect the droplets of different sizes and determine the droplet positions on the droplet capture line with 100% accuracy at the wavelength of 610 nm selected from the 6 bands to detect the droplets.

Source:

Journal: Advances in Internet of Things


DOI: 10.4236/ait.2021.111001(PDF)
Paper Id: 106647 (metadata)

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Thermal Effect of a Revolving Gaussian Beam on Activating Heat-Sensitive Nociceptors in Skin

Authors: Hongyun Wang, Wesley A. Burgei, Hong Zhou

ABSTRACT
We consider the problem of inducing withdrawal reflex on a test subject by exposing the subject’s skin to an electromagnetic beam. Heat-sensitive nociceptors in the skin are activated wherever the temperature is above the activation temperature. Withdrawal reflex occurs when the activated volume reaches a threshold. Previously we studied static beams with 3 types of power density distribution: Gaussian, super-Gaussian, and flat-top. We found that the flaptop is the best and the Gaussian is the worst in their performance with regard to 1) minimizing the time to withdrawal reflex, 2) minimizing the energy consumption and 3) minimizing the maximum temperature increase. The less-than-desirable performance of Gaussian beams is attributed to the uneven distribution of power density resulting in low energy efficiency: near the beam center the high power density does not contribute proportionally to increasing the activated volume; outside the beam effective radius the low power density fails to activate nociceptors. To overcome the drawbacks of Gaussian beams, in this study, we revolve a Gaussian beam around a fixed point to make the power density more uniformly distributed. We optimize the performance over two parameters: the spot size of static beam and the radius of beam revolution. We find that in comparison with a static Gaussian beam, a revolving Gaussian beam can reduce the energy consumption, and at the same time lower the maximum temperature.

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Journal: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics
DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2021.91007

(PDF)
Paper Id: 106612 (metadata)

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The Relationship between Supply Chain Management Practices and Supply Chain Performance in Saudi Arabian Firms

Author: Yaser Y. Alahmad

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between supply chain management practices (SCMPs) and supply chain performance (SC performance) within different industries in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. An empirical study was conducted on a sample of 196 firms; information was collected from the supply chain managers and those in top management in different industries in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition to a series of interviews conducted with managers of the supply chains, a theoretical model was developed depicting the relationship between SCMPs and supply chain performance (SC performance). This model was also tested using multiple regression analysis. The research suggests that SCMPs, including supply chain planning (SC planning), level of information sharing (IS), customer relationship management (CRM), and supplier relationship management (SRM) are all positively related to SC performance. Additionally, SC performance is positively related to FFP. The research employed perceptual performance measures to gauge return on investment, revenue, and sales. Future studies could use actual numbers to better quantify the benefits within this context.

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Journal: American Journal of Industrial and Business Management
DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2021.111004(PDF)
Paper Id: 106590 (metadata)

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Effect of Nitrogen Application Rates on the Nitrogen Utilization, Yield and Quality of Rice

Authors: Hanling Liang, Shiyu Gao, Jingxuan Ma, Tian Zhang, Tianyu Wang,
Shuang Zhang, Zhaoxia Wu*

ABSTRACT
Research on the effect of the nitrogen application rate on the balance of the nitrogen utilization, yield and quality of rice is common in South China but is relatively lacking in Northeast China, especially in the Liaohe Delta. In this study, Yanfeng 47 rice was planted in Panjin city, China, to explore the effect of six nitrogen rates (0, 160, 210, 260, 315 and 420 kg N/ha) on the nitrogen use efficiency, rice quality and grain yield of rice plants. The results showed that the application of an appropriate nitrogen rate (210-260 kg N/ha) remarkably increased the nitrogen use efficiency of rice plants, grain yield, rice milling quality and nutritional quality and resulted in a moderate rice eating quality. Although low nitrogen rates (160 kg N/ha) maintained a high rice eating quality, they decreased grain yield and other rice qualities, and excessive nitrogen (315 kg N/ha) increased rice appearance quality but significantly reduced the nitrogen use efficiency (p < 0.05), yield and eating quality of rice. Therefore, to produce rice in the Liaohe Delta by an environmentally friendly method and guarantee rice with high quality and yield, the recommended nitrogen application rate is 210 kg N/ha.

Source:

Journal: Food and Nutrition Sciences
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2021.121002(PDF)
Paper Id: 106574 (metadata)

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The Integration of Mainstream Psychotherapies in an Epistemological Framework

Author: Zhizhong Kai

ABSTRACT
Different forms of psychotherapy often construct theories and techniques based on different epistemological frameworks. Because of epistemological conflicts, some psychotherapy seems incompatible with each other. However, the problems encountered in psychotherapy are complex and multifaceted, and each psychotherapy has shown its shortcomings. So many researchers and practitioners were trying to use a combination of treatment techniques and integrate various psychotherapy in a treatment plan. Integrating different schools of psychotherapy requires an epistemological framework that can accommodate different psychotherapy to help them develop their strengths and prevent conflict. This paper proposed an epistemological framework based on system theory and the uncertainty principle. Through this framework, this paper attempted to reinterpret some of the mainstream psychotherapy and identified the underlying factors that are effective in their treatment. Finally, this paper put forward the methods and directions of integrating these psychotherapies into an epistemological framework.

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Journal: Open Journal of Social Sciences
DOI: 10.4236/jss.2021.91005(PDF)
Paper Id: 106528 (metadata)

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Developing a Spatial Tool for Assessing Coastal Community and Identifying Infrastructure at Risk

Authors: Sultana Nasrin Baby, Colin Arrowsmith, Gang-Jun Liu, David Mitchell,
Nadhir Al-Ansari, Nahala Abbas

ABSTRACT
A recent trend of sea level shows constant rising. Sea level rise has caused a significant risk to seaside areas. This study examines the potential effect of climate change and rising sea levels on coastal regions and evaluates the susceptibility of coastal areas in Inverloch, Melbourne Australia. A model of Hypothetically Flooded Zones, based on LiDAR data was built, processed and manipulated in ArcGIS. Through applying this model, the effect of rising sea level on the infrastructures such as buildings, dwellings, roads, land use and the population was assessed. Elevation data sets of varying resolution and accuracy have been processed to show the improved quality of LiDAR data contributes to a more precise delineation of flood-prone coastal lands. After the susceptible areas to sea level rise were delineated, the worst-case scenario was calculated (based on the increase in sea level projected for 2100) and it would impacts about 0.86% of roads, 221 of different building infrastructures. This method can be used in other areas to protect the coasts due to rapid changes caused by climate change.

Source:

Journal: Engineering
DOI: 10.4236/eng.2021.131004(PDF)
Paper Id: 106505 (metadata)

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Iron Succinate Increased Ferritin and Transferrin Saturation in Non-Anaemic Patients with Heart Failure and Iron Deficiency—A Pilot Study

Authors: Kurt Boman, Mona Olofsson

ABSTRACT
Introduction: Iron deficiency (ID) is often present (32% – 65%) in patients with heart failure (HF). Oral iron absorption in patients with HF is generally poor. This is the reason why oral treatment is not recommended. Aim: To test whether oral iron succinate significantly increases iron deposits in non-anaaemic patients with HF. Methods: ID was defined as ferritin < 100 μg/L or 100 – 299 μg/L with transferrin saturation (TSAT) < 20%. Forty-two patients were screened. Ferrous succinate was administered as one tablet (100 mg, including 32.48 mg Fe2+ plus 100 mg succinate) in the morning and one tablet at bedtime for at least 3 months. Hemoglobin, CRP, ferritin, iron, TSAT, and hepcidin were analyzed before starting treatment, at 6 weeks, and at 3 months end of study (EOS). Results: Five women and 15 men were included in the study. The level of ferritin increased significantly from baseline to 6 weeks (47 to 78 μg/L, p = 0.009) and baseline to EOS (47 to 85 μg/L, p = 0.001). TSAT increased significantly from baseline to 6 weeks (20% to 27%, p = 0.046) and baseline to EOS (20% to 25%, p = 0.043). Hepcidin increased significantly from baseline to 6 weeks (2.5 nmol/L to 4.8 nmol/L, p = 0.006) and baseline to EOS (2.5 to 4.2 nmol/L, p = 0.02). Conclusion: Oral iron succinate significantly increased iron uptake, almost doubling the ferritin levels and increasing the TSAT, in patients with HF. Our findings challenge the opinion that oral iron treatment cannot significantly increase iron deposits in non-anemic patients with ID and HF.

Source:

Journal: World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases
DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2021.111002(PDF)
Paper Id: 106484 (metadata)

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Simple Measurement of Carbon Films on Copper Tubes and Their Effects on Corrosion

Authors: Takashi Iyasu, Motoki Kuratani, Itaru Ikeda, Noriyuki Tanaka, Yutaka Yamada, Osamu Sakurada

ABSTRACT
It has been reported that pitting corrosion in copper tubes occurs due to the effect of a carbon film produced by the influence of undergoing an oil and heat treatment. As a quantitative method for determining the residual carbon amount, it has been reported that the inner surface of a copper tube can be dissolved with a mixed acid to collect and analyze the adhering carbon; however, this method is dangerous and difficult. Therefore, two methods were examined as a simple quantitative method for obtaining the residual carbon amount using copper tubes with known residual carbon amounts. One method utilizes X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the other method utilizes the potential difference between the carbon film-adhered surface and carbon film-removed surface. In regard to XPS measurement, a linear correlation was found between the spectral intensity of C and the residual carbon amount; therefore, XPS measurements were considered to be effective as a simple measurement method for the carbon film on the inner surface of a copper tube. In the evaluation method by measuring the corrosion potential, a correlation was observed between the potential difference ΔE and the residual carbon amount of the inner surface of the tube and the outer surface of the polished tube. It is considered possible to estimate the residual carbon amount from the prepared calibration curve. Through these studies, it is suggested that the carbon film was non-uniformly present on the surface of the copper tube. Therefore, the galvanic current was measured, and the effect of a non-uniform carbon film on corrosion behavior was investigated. As a result, in the measurement of galvanic current, the current flowed from the copper tube with a large amount of residual carbon (cathode) to the copper tube with a small amount of residual carbon (anode). In addition, the higher the area ratio of the carbon film was, the larger the galvanic current tended to be.

Source:

Journal: Open Journal of Composite Materials
DOI: 10.4236/ojcm.2021.111002(PDF)
Paper Id: 106441 (metadata)

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Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria as Biological Control Agent in Rice

Authors: Duangkhaetita Kanjanasopa, Wanthakarn Aiedhet, Suraphon Thitithanakul, Chanyarat Paungfoo-Lonhienne

ABSTRACT
The use of agrochemical products to combat diseases in crops has adverse effects on the environment and human health. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) has been increasingly proposed as an eco-friendly alternative in agriculture. PGPRs have beneficial effects not only in promoting plant growth but also have shown their potential as biological control agent, being able to inhibit plant pathogens. Here, we investigated the use of PGPR Paraburkholderia sp. strain SOS3 to provide disease protection in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The antagonistic activity of SOS3 against five fungal pathogens of rice was assessed by dual culture on plates and on rice seedlings. The results showed that on plate assay, SOS3 inhibits the growth of Curvularia lunata, Rhizoctonia solani, Pyricularia oryzae, Helminthosporium oryzae, and Fusarium moniliforme by 17.2%, 1.1%, 8.3%, 32.5%, and 35.4%, respectively. When inoculated on rice seeds, SOS3 promotes seed germination and significantly reduces disease symptoms in plants infected with R. solani. These results suggest that SOS3 has a great potential to be used in rice agriculture to combat the “Sheath Blight” disease.

Source:

Journal: Agricultural Sciences
DOI: 10.4236/as.2021.121001(PDF)
Paper Id: 106425 (metadata)

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Study on Local Optical Flow Method Based on YOLOv3 in Human Behavior Recognition

Authors: Hao Zheng, Jianfang Liu, Mengyi Liao

ABSTRACT
In the process of human behavior recognition, the traditional dense optical flow method has too many pixels and too much overhead, which limits the running speed. This paper proposed a method combing YOLOv3 (You Only Look Once v3) and local optical flow method. Based on the dense optical flow method, the optical flow modulus of the area where the human target is detected is calculated to reduce the amount of computation and save the cost in terms of time. And then, a threshold value is set to complete the human behavior identification. Through design algorithm, experimental verification and other steps, the walking, running and falling state of human body in real life indoor sports video was identified. Experimental results show that this algorithm is more advantageous for jogging behavior recognition.

Source:

Journal: Journal of Computer and Communications
DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2021.91002(PDF)
Paper Id: 106420 (metadata)

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