Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Lignin

Author(s): Julia Schuler, Ursel Hornung, Andrea Kruse, Nicolaus Dahmen, Jörg Sauer

ABSTRACT
The majority of platform chemicals are currently provided through crude oil processes. Nevertheless, the substitution of the crude oil with biomass should be the ecological aim. Lignin, an aromatic macromolecule, may play an important role in that exchange, as it is the only bio based source of aromatic compounds. For instance, it could be a source of bifunctional aromatic molecules, like the monocyclic compounds catechol or guaiacol, or bifunctional oligomers. However, no process for the production of aromatics from lignin in technical scale has been established until now. Hence, the focus of this work is to clarify the chemical degradation mechanism under hydrothermal conditions, to liquefy lignin delivering high functional molecules and to increase the yield and selectivity of the cleavage towards bifunctional molecules like catechol. The combination of fast hydrolysis, thermal degradation reactions and hydrogenation drives the hydrothermal liquefaction; this gives the possibility to narrow down the product spectrum in comparison to other “dry” cleavage methods, towards a higher yield of e.g. catechols.

Source:

Journal: Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology
DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2017.81007 (PDF)
Paper Id: 73655 (metadata)

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Impact of Tree Stump Harvesting on Soil Carbon and Nutrients and Second Rotation Tree Growth in Mid-Wales, UK

Author(s): Elena I. Vanguelova, Rona Pitman, Sue Benham, Mike Perks, James I. J. Morison

ABSTRACT
The drive to develop renewable energy is increasing the interest in energy forestry. Woody biomass from forest residues has the potential to make a significant contribution to greenhouse gas emission reduction through fossil fuel substitution. However, there is a danger of operational practice running ahead of the understanding of the environmental impacts of such activities. Consequently, there is an urgent requirement for scientifically underpinned guidance on the best management practices to ensure soil and water protection, including sustaining forestry’s key role in carbon capture. This study addresses the main issues associated with stump harvesting practices and their impacts on soil carbon and nutrient capital and effects on the second rotation tree growth. It reports results from a clearfell site in the UK where experimental stump harvesting was carried out in 2005 before replanting with Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis (Bon.)Carr. Both stump harvested and conventional harvested areas (Control) were studied in 2009 and 2010, five years after harvesting, on the two distinct soil types at the site: podzolised brown earth and peaty gley soils. Continue reading

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Automatic Construction Method for Domain Concepts Based on Wikipedia Semantic Knowledge Base

Author(s): Qiaoyan Zhang, Min Lin, Shujun Zhang

ABSTRACT
This paper proposes a method to construct conceptual semantic knowledge base of software engineering domain based on Wikipedia. First, it takes the concept of SWEBOK V3 as the standard to extract the interpretation of the concept from the Wikipedia, and extracts the keywords as the concept of semantic; Second, through the conceptual semantic knowledge base, it is formed by the relationship between the hierarchical relationship concept and the other text interpretation concept in the Wikipedia. Finally, the semantic similarity between concepts is calculated by the random walk algorithm for the construction of the conceptual semantic knowledge base. The semantic similarity of knowledge base constructed by this method can reach more than 84%, and the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified.

Source:

Journal: Journal of Computer and Communications
DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2017.51006 (PDF)
Paper Id: 73570 (metadata)

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Excavated DNA from Two Khazar Burials

Author(s): Anatole A. Klyosov, Tatiana Faleeva

ABSTRACT
To understand a biological tribal affiliation (in terms of Y-chromosomal haplogroups, subclades, and haplotypes) of two excavated Khazar bone remains in the lower Don region in the south of Russia, we have extracted and analyzed their DNA and showed that both belonged to haplogroup R1a and its subclade Z93. The pattern could be considered typically “Turkic”, and not a Jewish DNA lineage. Their haplotypes were also identified and reported here. The haplotypes indicate that both Khazars were unrelated to each other in a sense that their common ancestor lived as long as 1500 – 2500 years earlier than them, in the middle of the II millennium BC—beginning of the I millennium BC, during typically Scythian times or somewhat earlier. Their haplotypes are unrelated to well-known Jewish haplotypes of haplogroup R1a.

Source:

Journal: Advances in Anthropology
DOI: 10.4236/aa.2017.71002 (PDF)
Paper Id: 73563 (metadata)

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Progressive Crushing of Polymer Matrix Composite Tubular Structures: Review

Author(s): Ali Rabiee, Hessam Ghasemnejad

ABSTRACT
The present paper reviews crushing process of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRPs) composites tubular structures. Working with anisotropic material requires consideration of specific parameter definition in order to tailor a well-engineered composite structure. These parameters include geometry design, strain rate sensitivity, material properties, laminate design, interlaminar fracture toughness and off-axis loading conditions which are reviewed in this paper to create a comprehensive data base for researchers, engineers and scientists in the field. Each of these parameters influences the structural integrity and progressive crushing behaviour. In this extensive review each of these parameters is introduced, explained and evaluated. Construction of a well-engineered composite structure and triggering mechanism to strain rate sensitivity and testing conditions followed by failure mechanisms are extensively reviewed. Furthermore, this paper has mainly focused on experimental analysis that has been carried out on different types of FRP composites in the past two decades.

Source:

Journal: Open Journal of Composite Materials
DOI: 10.4236/ojcm.2017.71002 (PDF)
Paper Id: 73517 (metadata)

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High-Pressure Melting Experiments on Basalt-Peridotite Layered Source (KLB-1/N-MORB): Implications for Magma Genesis in Hawaii

Author(s): Shan Gao, Eiichi Takahashi, Toshihiro Suzuki

ABSTRACT
In order to understand the melting processes that occur within recycled oceanic crust and mantle in a heterogeneous plume (e.g., that beneath the Hawaiian Islands), a series of high-pressure-high-temperature layered experiments were performed at 2.9 GPa, 5 GPa, and 8 GPa, from 1300°C to 1650°C, using a fertile peridotite KLB-1 and N-MORB. Our experiments at conditions below the dry peridotite solidus produced melt compositions that ranged from basaltic andesite to tholeiite. An Opx reaction band formed between eclogite and peridotite layers, likely via chemical reaction between a silica-rich eclogite-derived partial melt and olivine in the peridotite matrix. At temperatures at or above the dry peridotite solidus, substantial melting occurred in both basalt and peridotite layers, and fully molten basalt melt and melt pockets from the peridotite layer combined. In our layered experiments, major and minor element contents in reacted melts closely matched those of Hawaiian tholeiite and picrite, except for Fe. Partial melts of anhydrous run products had ~55 – 57 wt% SiO2 at low temperature (i.e., were andesitic) and had ~50 – 53 wt% SiO2 at high temperatures, slightly below the dry peridotite solidus (i.e., were tholeiitic, and similar to those that occur during the Hawaii shield-building stage). Continue reading

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Rankings for Open Access Journals

There are more than 25,000 open access (OA) journals published around the world and only about 4600 journals are indexed by Google Scholar Metrics (h5 index) as of July 2016. To help researchers and publishers learn more about OA publishing, those indexed OA journals are ranked by subject. The basic benchmark used in the OA journals rankings is h5 index, the journal h5 index and related citations data are obtained from Google Scholar. This ranking work was performed by the team of Open Access Library (OALib).

And the h5-index for some of SCIRP’s Journals was also calculated by Google Scholar. For example, you can get the h5-index of Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) through the link https://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=zh-CN&view_op=list_hcore&venue=Wggis1YFgawJ.2016.

Besides, you can view a journals’ ranking by selecting proper research keywords from the A-Z list on this page: OA Publications’ Ranking. For example: Food Science & Technology. Meanwhile, as for the journals with broad fields, you can find the ranking on the page of Mega Journals.

 

 

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Analysis of Wigner’s Set Theoretical Proof for Bell-Type Inequalities

Author(s): Karl Hess, Hans De Raedt, Kristel Michielsen

ABSTRACT
We present a detailed analysis of the set theoretical proof of Wigner for Bell type inequalities with the following result. Wigner introduced a crucial assumption that is not related to Einstein’s local realism, but instead, without justification, to the existence of certain joint probability measures for possible and actual measurement outcomes of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) experiments. His conclusions about Einstein’s local realism are, therefore, not applicable to EPR experiments and the contradiction of the experimental outcomes to Wigner’s results has no bearing on the validity of Einstein’s local realism.

Source:

Journal: Journal of Modern Physics
DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2017.81005 (PDF)
Paper Id: 73365 (metadata)

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Gradual Band Energy to Passivate the Window Layer in Solar Cells

Author(s): A. Amine, M. Bouabdellaoui, K. Zaz, Y. Mir, M. Zazoui

ABSTRACT
The passivation layers at the front of the cell are often referred as to the window layer because it must be transparent so as the solar cell has a high efficiency. In this work, numerical simulation has been proposed to study the effect of the AlGaAs gradual and normal windows on the cell sensitivity to the electron irradiation so as to passivate the solar cell. To expect the effect of gradual window layers, the J-V and P-V characteristics are confirmed better energy conversion performance of the illuminated solar cells after irradiation. The short circuit current Jsc and the open circuit voltage Voc are evaluated for different electron irradiation fluencies. The results show how the gradual window layer improves resistance to electron irradiation through its own parameters.

Source:

Journal: Smart Grid and Renewable Energy
DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2017.81003 (PDF)
Paper Id: 73358 (metadata)

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Quality and Technological Properties of Gluten-Free Biscuits Made with Pachyrhizus ahipa Flour as a Novel Ingredient

Author(s): María Cecilia Doporto, Fernanda Sacco, Sonia Z. Viña, María Alejandra García

ABSTRACT
The development of gluten-free foodstuffs with high nutritional quality components is an important objective to achieve. Pachyrhizus ahipa is one of the few leguminous species that produce edible tuberous roots with high nutritional value. Thus, the aim of this work was to formulate biscuits containing corn starch and 125 – 350 g·kg-1 of P. ahipa flour (AF) and to study the main physicochemical properties related to their nutritional and technological quality as well as their sensory acceptability. The formulation containing 250 g of AF kg-1 was selected for improving the product nutritional quality (i.e. higher protein content) without an extensive modification of textural properties. A formulation replacing corn starch by cassava flour (250 g·kg-1) was also analyzed. In this case, ahipa and cassava biscuits showed maximum force and energy required to bite twice and three times higher than the control, respectively. Slight variations were observed in color (E and browning index). The overall acceptability of biscuits formulated with both flours was better scored than the control by a sensory panel. Principal component analysis allowed to relate quality attributes, chemical composition, and sensory characteristics of biscuits containing cassava or ahipa flours. The results indicated that ahipa flour could satisfactorily substitute part of the corn starch used in the formulations of gluten-free biscuits.

Source:

Journal: Food and Nutrition Sciences
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.81005 (PDF)
Paper Id: 73342 (metadata)

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