Matrix Extension with Fitness for Purpose and Stability Assessment of DHA and Additional Fatty Acids in Individual Whole Chicken Eggs

Authors: Gerald Patrick Dillon, Alexandros Yiannikouris, Walter Brandl, Cathy Cardinall, Wendy Yuan, Colm Anthony Moran

The consumption of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) is associated with several human health benefits. Most notable of these LC-PUFA is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA C22:6) whose inclusion is considered essential for optimum human health. Biofortification of common foods such as eggs with DHA has emerged as a specific approach to increase the intake of DHA in human populations. This can be achieved by supplementing poultry rations with feeds like microalgae or fish oil that are rich in DHA, which results in an increased uptake in the egg. Gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) is the method of choice when analyzing food such as eggs for DHA and other fatty acids. For regulatory studies it is desirable to demonstrate that the method is specifically suitable for the analysis of DHA and fatty acids in eggs. The purpose of this paper is to further extend the scope of the AOAC 996.06 methodology examined in the paper by Dillon et al., and to demonstrate the fitness for purpose of the method by examining specific validation parameters. It is a further objective to investigate the stability of DHA and other fatty acids of short and long timepoints. A validation of the method for the determination of DHA and three other fatty acids in eggs is thus presented.


Journal: Food and Nutrition Sciences
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2019.105038(PDF)
Paper Id: 92406 (metadata)

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Do Near-Solar-System Supernovae Enhance Volcanic Activities on Earth and Neighbouring Planets on Their Paths through the Spiral Arms of the Milky Way, and What Might Be the Consequences for Estimations of Earth’s History and Predictions for Its Future?

Author: Heinz-Juergen Brink

Recent observations of young volcanism on the near-Earth terrestrial planets require a new understanding. Magmatic/volcanic episodes on Venus, Mars and Mercury, as well as on Earth’s Moon, are apparently contemporaneous thermal events that accompanied increased magmatic/volcanic activity on Earth, following a 300-Myr cycle. A collateral galactic thermal source in the Milky Way appears to be needed that would predominantly affect the interior of the planets and, perhaps indirectly, Earth’s biosphere, compared to other galactic sources, such as intense cosmic rays or large, rocky bolides. The search for such a source leads to near-Earth supernovae, with their neutrino output, and to the question of whether those neutrinos could act as energy transmitters to heat up the body of Earth, and also enhance its short-term magmatic processes; for example, Cenozoic anorogenic volcanism. This observation challenges present assumptions and paradigms about Earth’s history, and requires the following reconsiderations: 1) the real origin of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction; 2) the general radioactive age determinations of rocks; and 3) geodynamic modelling using additional, external heat sources.


Journal: International Journal of Geosciences
DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2019.105032(PDF)
Paper Id: 92385


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The Psychosocial Impact and Value of Participating in a Storytelling Intervention for Patients Diagnosed with Cancer: An Integrative Review

Authors: Andrew Soundy, Kate Reid

Background: Interventions have recently been developed to test the therapeutic value of storytelling for people with cancer. This evidence includes different designs, as a result an integrative review is needed that can determine the impact and value of storytelling interventions for people with cancer. Aims: To undertake an integrative review of evidence identifying the impact and outcomes from storytelling interventions for people with cancer. Methods: An integrative review of group based storytelling interventions using a qualitative led-synthesis. Results: Eleven studies were identified with a total of 493 (49 female, 16 male, 428 not disclosed) people included. Two major themes were identified: 1) content of interaction and 2) outcomes from the interventions. Six sub-themes were identified. The results provided a unique insight into the psycho-emotional impact of storytelling interventions. Conclusions: It is essential that health care professionals understand the core benefits of storytelling for people with cancer. Further interventions are needed to identify an approach which could be applied within clinical settings.


Journal: Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation
DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2019.72004(PDF)
Paper Id: 92369 (metadata)

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The Development of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers in the Clean-Up of Water Pollutants: A Review

Authors: Kwabena Agyarko Sarpong, Wanzhen Xu, Weihong Huang, Wenming Yang

In the last decades, the extensive use of chemical and biological materials has not only seen to an increased transport of environmental pollutants but also, it has interfered and compromised the pristine state of different environmental matrices with emphasis on waterbodies. This has stimulated studies to develop and adopt novel techniques which consider the removal of pollutants with premium on economic feasibility, simple instrumentation, and high performance. In the treatment of water, the removal of trace concentration organic compounds and other numerous polluted water effluents is difficult due to limited affinity of trace compound ions to ion exchange resins. Because of the selective nature; recognition properties; adsorption ability; high stability; and easier preparation of molecular imprints, they are considered attractive and suitable artificial receptors to be applied in analytical separations, drug delivery, and as chemical sensors. In this review, we touch on the fundamentals of molecularly imprinted technologies and underscore some recent advances made in the development of imprinted polymers that are compatible with water and how they can be used in the clean-up of pollutants. The paper finally presents a comprehensive report on some challenges and outlook in the use of MIPs as water treatment sorbent.


Journal: American Journal of Analytical Chemistry
DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2019.105017(PDF)
Paper Id: 92347 (metadata)

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Social Competence and Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity of School-Aged Children through a Creative Physical Education Intervention

Authors: Arto Gråstén, Marja Kokkonen, John Quay, Juha Kokkonen

Traditional school physical education focuses on physical skills or strategies with an expectation that learning these skills lead to healthier lifestyle outside physical education classes, while children’s overall moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is widely decreasing. Creative Physical Education (CPE) understands physical education more holistically, as the central pedagogical element of movement is social learning. The current study examined the development of social competence in school physical education (PE) and total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation through a CPE-based intervention. Participants were 363 (177 intervention, 186 control) children from public elementary schools in Central Finland. The data collection was completed across two measurement points using questionnaires. The key findings were that: 1) the associations between social competence and MVPA engagement were relatively weak and 2) the 12-month intervention was effective in increasing students’ social competence in PE and total MVPA engagement. CPE teaching practices could provide positive social experiences in PE. However, applying new strategies into actual school settings may take time, and therefore, children need to be given sufficienttimeframe to take ownership of the activities.


Journal: Advances in Physical Education
DOI: 10.4236/ape.2019.92010(PDF)
Paper Id: 92335 (metadata)

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Research on Order-Inventory Transshipment Mechanism in Dual-Channel Distribution Supply Chain

Author: Min Shi

The development of e-commerce has prompted traditional enterprises to open up online channels and form a dual-channel sales model. The increase in the number of channels has led to an increase in the number of orders, so how to properly and effectively match the order with the inventory will test the operational capabilities of the enterprise. Based on this practical problem, this thesis considers a two-echelon distribution system with online and offline dual-channel sales, which consists of one group node (G) and multiple distribution nodes (D). When online orders are not fully satisfied, we propose an operation mechanism of transporting inventory to online orders through offline inventory. An optimal decision model is constructed by using the Analysis Target Cascading (ATC). Finally, the model is simulated and analyzed with a specific case. The results show that the ATC method and the transshipment mechanism are effective.


Journal: Open Journal of Business and Management
DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2019.73077(PDF)
Paper Id: 92273 (metadata)

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Extraction of the Speed of Gravity (Light) from Gravity Observations Only

Author: Espen Gaarder Haug

We show how one can measure the speed of gravity only using gravitational phenomena. Our approach offers several ways to measure the speed of gravity (light) and checks existing assumptions about light (gravity) in new types of experiments. The speed of light is included in several well-known gravitational formulas. However, if we can measure this speed from gravitational phenomena alone, then is it the speed of light or the speed of gravity we are measuring? We think it is more than a mere coincidence that they are the same. In addition, even if it is not possible to draw strong conclusions now, our formulations support the view that there is a link between electromagnetism and gravity. This paper also shows that all major gravity phenomena can be predicted from only performing two to three light observations. There is no need for knowledge of Newton’s gravitational constant G or the mass size to complete a series of major gravity predictions.


Journal: International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics
DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2019.92008(PDF)
Paper Id: 92311 (metadata)

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How Polydopamine Modulates Biological Responses to PTFE Prostheses

Authors: Isabelle Talon, Anne Schneider, Eric Mathieu, Bernard Senger, Benoit Frisch, Cendrine Seguin, Vincent Ball, Joseph Hemmerlé

Diaphragm repair after congenital diaphragmatic hernia is associated with hernia recurrence due to prosthesis failure. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE), a synthetic non-degradable biomaterial, is currently used for those diaphragmatic defect repairs. The drawback of e-PTFE is its poor wettability that leads to coating difficulties, bonding that could favor implant integration. However, polydopamine (PDA) can be deposited as well on organic as on inorganic substrates. Therefore, we assessed the biological responses of a clinically used e-PTFE biomaterial treated with PDA in two different manners: one impregnated with PDA and the other coated with a one side PDA film. Mechanical properties of the raw e-PTFE, the PDA soaked biomaterial and the PDA coated surface were characterized by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. Behaviors of primary human fibroblasts and Wharton’s jelly stem cells were investigated by electron microscopy. Findings reveal that the mechanical properties at the microscopic scale are not modified by the PDA treatments. Cells spread onto both PDA functionalized substrates. In addition, microscopic observations disclose numerous focal cell contacts, evidencing cell attachment, and cytoplasmic projections particularly with the nanoscale PDA coating. Results clearly suggest that PDA in general but above all the PDA coating enhance cellular colonization of the implant material.


Journal: Materials Sciences and Applications
DOI: 10.4236/msa.2019.105028(PDF)
Paper Id: 92261 (metadata)

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Modeling Crash Risk at Rail-Highway Grade Crossings by Track Class

Authors: Soumya Sharma, Srinivas S. Pulugurtha

The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA)’s Web Based Accident Prediction System (WBAPS) is used by federal, state and local agencies to get a preliminary idea on safety at a rail-highway grade crossing. It is an interactive and user-friendly tool used to make funding decisions. WBAPS is almost three decades old and involves a three-step approach making it difficult to interpret the contribution of the variables included in the model. It also does not directly account for regional/local developments and technological advancements pertaining to signals and signs implemented at rail-highway grade crossings. Further, characteristics of a rail-highway grade crossing vary by track class which is not explicitly considered by WBAPS. This research, therefore, examines and develops a method and models to estimate crashes at rail-highway grade crossings by track class using regional/local level data. The method and models developed for each track class as well as considering all track classes together are based on data for the state of North Carolina. Linear, as well as count models based on Poisson and Negative Binomial (NB) distributions, was tested for applicability. Negative binomial models were found to be the best fit for the data used in this research. Models for each track class have better goodness of fit statistics compared to the model considering data for all track classes together. This is primarily because traffic, design, and operational characteristics at rail-highway grade crossings are different for each track class. The findings from statistical models in this research are supported by model validation.


Journal: Journal of Transportation Technologies
DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2019.93016(PDF)
Paper Id: 92248 (metadata)

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Assessing the Factors Influencing Migration Decision of Climate Refugees in Coastal Areas of Bangladesh

Authors: Tareq Mahamud Abir, Xiaojun Xu

The major impacts of climate change play a substantial role in triggering human migration, especially in the coastal areas. The individual or combined effects of climate change are likely to trigger mass human movement both within and across international borders. People rarely move for a single reason; the motivation to migrate is complex of many factors. The main goal of this article is to identify the factors related to the decision to migrate taken by refugees in the coastal area. To assess this objective we employ exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) and find that different factors influence refugees’ migration decision differently. From the findings, it is seen that loss of shelter, extreme events, decreasing soil fertility and food shortage, variability in temperature patterns and exhaustion of natural resources are the most important environmental factors that affect the decision to migrate of climate refugees. Low income, increasing price, decreasing purchasing power are the most important economic factors that influence migration decision. No social factors have significant effect on migration decision while safety as a political factor has a moderate influence on refugees’ decision to migrate. Finally, this article provides some recommendations for recognition of and protection for migrants forced to move to safer places due to certain direct impacts of climate change, notwithstanding the existence of multi-causality.


Journal: American Journal of Climate Change
DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2019.82011(PDF)
Paper Id: 92241 (metadata)

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