Chemical Composition and Biological Significance of Thymol as Antiparasitic

Authors: Wafaa M. Hikal, Kirill G. Tkachenko, Hussein A. H. Said-Al Ahl, Hoda Sany, Ali S. Sabra, Rowida S. Baeshen, Amra Bratovcic

Thymol is one of the most important phytochemical components because of its pharmacological and bioactive potential effects. This review focuses particularly on thymol as an alternative natural antiparasitic with potential use in the pharmaceutical industry. This is in line with the preferences of the natural products for treatment being safer and without side effects. The biosynthesis pathways of thymol and carvacrol have been discussed, and mechanism of action of thymol on parasites. Studies on thymol confirmed the activity of thymol as anti-parasite against anthelmintic, Trypanosoma ssp., Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania spp., Plasmodium falciparum, Giardia duodenalis, Eimeria ssp., Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium galli.


Journal: Open Journal of Ecology
DOI: 10.4236/oje.2021.113018(PDF)
Paper Id: 107549 (metadata)

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Mathematical Models for a Social Partitioning Problem

Author: Vardges Melkonian

In this paper we develop modeling techniques for a social partitioning problem. Different social interaction regulations are imposed during pandemics to prevent the spread of diseases. We suggest partitioning a set of company employees as an effective way to curb the spread, and use integer programming techniques to model it. The goal of the model is to maximize the number of direct interactions between employees who are essential for company’s work subject to the constraint that all employees should be partitioned into components of no more than a certain size implied by the regulations. Then we further develop the basic model to take into account different restrictions and provisions. We also give heuristics for solving the problem. Our computational results include sensitivity analysis on some of the models and analysis of the heuristic performance.


Journal: American Journal of Computational Mathematics
DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2021.111001(PDF)
Paper Id: 107543


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Progress in the Treatment of Hematological Diseases with Rituximab

Authors: Xiangjun Fu, Li’e Lin, Hongxia Yao, Li Huang, Can Meng, Shuwen Wang,
Dan Liu, Li Guo, Mengling Duan

Rituximab is a mouse and human chimeric CD20 (anti-B cell) specific monoclonal antibody that has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of lymphoma. The expression of 20 antigen is expressed in the whole ontogeny of B cells, starting from the premature B cells in bone marrow to the differentiation of plasma cells in secondary lymphoid tissues. The wide distribution of 20 molecules allows rituximab to eliminate a large number of B cells. Rituximab is the core drug for the treatment of hematological diseases, often combined with drugs as a first-line treatment. Long-term hormone therapy often results in serious adverse reactions, and new therapies, which can avoid widespread immunotoxicity, have great potential for treating diseases of the blood system.


Journal: Open Journal of Blood Diseases
DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2021.111002(PDF)
Paper Id: 107540 (metadata)

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Optimization of Raceway Parameters in Iron Making Blast Furnace for Maximizing the Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) Rate

Authors: Deepak Chandra Sau, Rabiranjan Murmu, Pragyan Senapati, Harekrushna Sutar

This paper presents a method by which the maximum possible rate of pulverized coal injection (PCI) in blast furnace can be predicted. The method is based on a two-step approach. First, a first principle simulation model of the blast furnace is used to generate data sets for the development of a linear model of pulverized coal injection rate. The data has been generated randomly in MATLAB software within the range of operating parameters (constraints) of the blast furnace. After that, the coefficients of the function have been determined. The inputs and the resulting outputs formed the data on which the linear optimization model was developed. Next, the linear model was used for maximizing the pulverized coal rate injection by optimizing the other variables. Two operating Indian Blast Furnaces have been chosen to validate the optimization model.


Journal: Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science
DOI: 10.4236/aces.2021.112009(PDF)
Paper Id: 107520 (metadata)

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Poly (C)-Binding Protein 1: A Novel Function Attributed to the Nervous System Microenvironment

Authors: Bingbing Jia, Lirong Huo, Meng Ye, Chensi Liang

Poly (C)-binding protein 1 (PCBP1), which acts as an RNA binding protein, has multiple functions and regulates gene expression by binding to polycytosine, poly (C). The aim of the present study was to investigate the novel function of PCBP1 in the nervous system microenvironmen. The overexpression of PCBP1 has a critical effect on the proliferation and anti-apoptosis of neuroblastoma and glial cells in the direct model, whereas the overexpression of PCBP1 in neuroblastoma or glial cells cannot affect the proliferation or apoptosis of neuroblastoma or glial cells through substances secreted extracellularly. Fur-thermore, through direct or indirect actions, PCBP1 suppressed the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and the inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 and increased the levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10; addi-tionally, PCBP1 changed the expression of functional proteins, such as heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The results suggest that PCBP1 can regulate the nervous system in proliferation, apoptosis, inflammatory re-sponse and expression of relevant functional proteins, and it could provide novel targets for gene treating human neurological disorders.


Journal: World Journal of Neuroscience
DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2021.111006(PDF)
Paper Id: 107389 (metadata)

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Mapping Subsurface Seepage Flow Patterns in Proximity to a Coal Combustion Residual Landfill Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography

Authors: Ruobai Zhao, Neil Anderson, David Rogers, Evgeniy Torgashov, Jing Sun

Electrical resistivity tomography data were acquired in proximity to the coal combustion residual landfill in an effort to image and analyze seepage pathways through the shallow residual soil and underlying karsted limestone bedrock. The water table is at a depth of more than 45 m. The most prominent subsurface seepage pathways identified on the acquired electrical resistivity tomography data are located immediately adjacent to the toe of the landfill and are attributed to stormwater run-off. The moisture content of the limestone appears to decrease gradually with increasing distance from the toe of the landfill, suggesting there is also a horizontal component of moisture flow in the subsurface. Shallow limestone with higher moisture content generally underlies or is in close proximity to anthropogenic features such as drainage ditches and clay berms that are designed to channel run-off. At one location, electrical resistivity tomography data were acquired along essentially the same traverse at different times of the year, and the resistivity of shallow limestone overall was lower on the data acquired after heavy rains.


Journal: Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection
DOI: 10.4236/gep.2021.92009(PDF)
Paper Id: 107307 (metadata)

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Sensitivity Encoding Reconstruction for MRI with Gridding Algorithm

Authors: Lianjun Zhang, Gang Liu

The Sensitivity Encoding (SENSE) parallel reconstruction scheme for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is studied and implemented with gridding algorithm in this paper. In this paper, the sensitivity map profile, field map information and the spiral k-space data collected from an array of receiver coils are used to reconstruct un-aliased images from under-sampled data. The gridding algorithm is implemented with SENSE due to its ability in evaluating forward and adjoins operators with non-Cartesian sampled data. This paper also analyzes the performance of SENSE with real data set and identifies the computational issues that need to be improved for further research.


Journal: Journal of Computer and Communications
DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2021.92002(PDF)
Paper Id: 107278 (metadata)

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Particle Physics Problems Addressed with Simple Mathematics Related to General Relativity

Author: T. R. Mongan

Existing particle physics models do not account for dark matter and neutrino mass, or explain the three generations of fundamental fermions. This analysis uses simple mathematics, related to general relativity, to address these problems. The paper does not address the very difficult problem of quantizing general relativity.


Journal: Journal of Modern Physics
DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2021.123019(PDF)
Paper Id: 107259 (metadata)

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Business Representation in the Brazilian Labor Justice from the Corporate Forms Concepts Perspective

Author: Danilo Scramin Alves

This article aims to analyze the forms of representation of the legal entity in Brazilian labor lawsuits, especially in the case of legal representation and the hearing representative, considering the concepts of corporate forms. Based on this discussion, a study was elaborated focused on the presentation of dialogues between indoctrinators, legislation and jurisprudence about the representation of the company in the Brazilian Labor Court, followed by an analysis of these representations from the different meanings of company. The objective of the research is to promote an analysis on how the perception of corporate forms has influenced business representation in the Brazilian Labor Justice. In the end, despite the necessity of further research, it was found that, although both forms of perception are identified in the current system, the Brazilian labor legislature seemed to recognize corporations as real entities for purposes of representation.


Journal: Beijing Law Review
DOI: 10.4236/blr.2021.121003(PDF)
Paper Id: 107232 (metadata)

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The Temporal Dimension of Shopping Behavior

Author: Jacob Hornik

Shopping is a major household activity that consumes time and other resources. This paper represents an attempt to construct a unified model of shopping activity by drawing on the households’ production approach. A formal treatment is presented that takes into account the explicit relationships between households’ temporal and monetary resources, stage of family life cycle, their subjective shopping preferences, and shopping behavior. Emerged propositions make the study of time use for shopping increasingly amenable.


Journal: Journal of Service Science and Management
DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2021.141005(PDF)
Paper Id: 107204 (metadata)

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