Computational Analysis of Theacrine, a Purported Nootropic and Energy-Enhancing Nutritional Supplement

Authors: Bradley O. Ashburn, Diana J. Le, Corin K. Nishimura

Herein is the first reported conceptual density functional theory (DFT) investigation of the purine alkaloid theacrine and the comparison of quantum chemical properties to the closely related stimulant caffeine. DFT global chemical reactivity descriptors (chemical hardness/softness, chemical potential/electronegativity, and electrophilicity) and local reactivity descriptors (Fukui functions and dual descriptor) were calculated for both compounds using Spartan ‘16 software. All calculations were carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory. Reactivity analysis of the Fukui dual descriptor calculations reveals sites of nucleophilic and electrophilic attack. The results provide a solid chemical foundation for understanding how theacrine interacts with cellular systems.


Journal: Computational Chemistry
DOI: cc.2019.71002(PDF)
Paper Id: 89520 (metadata)

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Some Thoughts upon Long-Range Interaction and Entangled States

Author: Bo Lehnert

The problems of long-range interaction and associated questions on entangled states are reconsidered in terms of a recently developed revised quantum electrodynamic theory by the author, as being applied to subatomic systems. There are indications that the theories of relativity and quantum mechanics do not necessarily have to be in conflict. But more investigations are required for a full understanding to be obtained on these problems.


Journal: Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications
DOI: jemaa.2018.1012015(PDF)
Paper Id: 89467 (metadata)

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Calcified Nodule Formation in Vitro Using Rat Mandibular Incisor Pulp Cells

Authors: Hideaki Ikenaga, Masataka Yoshikawa, Ayano Miyamoto, Hitomi Nakama,
Ikuo Nishikawa, Satoshi Teramoto, Hiroaki Aso, Nozomi Matsuo, Hiroshi Maeda

One great advantage of bone marrow is that a large number of stem cells can be obtained. However, stem cells cannot be taken from the bone marrow of a patient for the purpose of regenerating teeth. In dental practice, it may not be practical to obtain mesenchymal stem cells for the regeneration of the tooth from iliac bone marrow, as in orthopedics. Therefore, establishment of a cell source for tooth regeneration is one of the important problems in the field of regenerative medicine. Although the isolation of undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells or odontoblasts from dental pulp may be difficult, dental pulp may be a favorable source for stem cells to regenerate a tooth via tissue engineering. As a fundamental study for tooth regeneration, this study was performed in order to clarify the culture periods for proliferation and differentiation using rat dental pulp-derived cells. The results of this study were as follows: Primary culture of the dental pulp cells does not require a long period of time. However, for sufficient proliferation of dental pulp cells to form a calcified nodule in the secondary culture, a long culture period is required. Dexamethasone was essential for the formation of calcified nodules by dental pulp-derived cells. Calcified nodule formation by dental pulp-derived cells in vitro required more than one month. The duration of the secondary culture for the dental pulp-derived cells will be much longer.


Journal: Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering
DOI: jbise.2018.1112027(PDF)
Paper Id: 89432 (metadata)

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Sixth Scale Model Studies of Masonry Arch Rib Behaviour at Different Eccentricities

Authors: Abbagana Mohammed, T. G. Hughes

This paper reports a validation study involving sixth scale masonry model to replicate prototype tests carried out on five unit high masonry prisms. In order to test the applicability of small masonry models to real life problems, an investigation into masonry behaviour relevant to the serviceability requirement of masonry arch bridges was chosen as prototype test to validate the small scale masonry tests. Only representative masonry specimens were considered in the study; this corresponded to parts of an arch ring in a complete masonry arch. Two mortar designations; designation iv and designation v were used. These weak mortars tend to conform better to existing old structures. Loads were applied at four eccentricities of 0, 5, 9, and 14 mm from the centre of the specimens. This corresponds to e/d ratios of 0, 0.14, 0.25, and 0.39, where e is the eccentricity of the load and d the length of the transverse section of the specimens. The result shows that validation study corresponds with prototype study for low eccentricities; therefore, strength enhancement is seen over the concentric compressive strength. However, this does not apply at higher eccentricities as specimens were noticed to fail by elastic instability characterised by tension debonding of the top mortar joint.


Journal: Open Journal of Civil Engineering
DOI: ojce.2018.84038(PDF)
Paper Id: 89392 (metadata)

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Application of Three Order Cumulants in Fault Diagnosis

Author: Wenbing Wu

The three-order cumulants’ complex forms of different definitions include different coupling information of signals, and the information can be used to diagnose fault. In the experiment of pressure reducing valve’s fault diagnosis, through these different coupling information, the features of fault signals and normal signals were extracted by wavelet in different directions, then these features were inputted to diagnose the fault. The experiment shows that this method can achieve a satisfactory result.


Journal: International Journal of Modern Nonlinear Theory and Application
DOI: ijmnta.2018.74008(PDF)
Paper Id: 89364 (metadata)

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Let’s Be Friends: National Homophily in Multicultural Newcomer Student Networks

Authors: Kishore Gopalakrishna Pillai, Constantinos N. Leonidou, Xuemei Bian

Understanding the relational and network dynamics among newcomer networks is important to devising appropriate strategies that will maximize the productivity of the incoming workforce. Nevertheless, there are limited empirical contributions on newcomer networks with few studies examining newcomer networks in international environments. This study focuses on national homophily and examines whether ethnic identity salience, self-efficacy, individualism and ethnocentrism are associated with the occurrence of national homophily in newcomers networks. Using a multicultural student sample drawn from newly formed networks, the study found that ethnic identity salience and academic self-efficacy are associated with national homophily positively and negatively, respectively. Individualism is not found to be related to homophily while, contrary to our hypothesis, ethnocentrism is found to be negatively related to homophily. Through its examination of the effect of attitudinal variables on homophily, this study contributes to the broader literature on homophily and provides implications for managers and researchers.


Journal: Social Networking
DOI: sn.2019.81002(PDF)
Paper Id: 89315 (metadata)

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Acoustic-Structural Influences in Brazilian Education

Authors: André Vieira Sonoda, Ana Paula Furtado Soares Pontes

It presents partial results of a research project about acoustic-structural influences on Brazilian education based in the analysis of Campus I of the Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB) in 2016 beyond literature related to the theme in other Brazilian states. It pretends to call attention to the fact that diverse inappropriate acoustic-structural aspect of classrooms and academic environments can generate damage to the educational process and health. The methodology is based on bibliographic analyses and acoustic evaluate of academic environments. The results suggest pedagogical losses in the sense of insufficient school development, possibilities of health problems besides irreparable hearing loss, aspects incompatibles with cognitive activities, improvement of the quality of life and educational development. It is concluded that the architectural and acoustic-structural aspects of projects related to classrooms and school structures need alterations that permit better quality of life for professionals and students, appropriated conditions for the educational process and improvement of academic performance.


Journal: Creative Education
DOI: ce.2018.916212(PDF)
Paper Id: 89258 (metadata)

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Spatial Analysis of Federal Protected Areas and Priority Areas for Biodiversity Conservation in Brazil

Authors: Valdir Adilson Steinke, Sandra Maria da Silva Barbosa,
Venicius Juvêncio de Miranda Mendes, Vinicius Galvão Zanatto,
Gabriella Emilly Pessoa, Gustavo Bayma

This study presents a spatial analysis of priority areas for biodiversity conservation (PABCs) in Brazil and their coverage by federal protected areas as an indicator of the level of protection afforded to biodiversity in the country and the convergence of environmental protection policies in the sphere of federal government. Georeferenced data were processed using a geographic information system, enabling the calculation of areas, analyses of superimpositions, localizations, and the obtainment of other information using spatial features manipulated in this system. A comparative analysis is done of the PABCs mapped in two periods (2003 and 2007) to ascertain the evolution of this public policy instrument in detecting environmental priorities in protected areas. The improved coverage of PABCs by protected areas in the more recent mapping indicates a good convergence of environmental policies, which are enhanced by technical improvements to mapping procedures and methods for identifying such areas. As a result, the priority areas for biodiversity conservation could become a protected area regulated and recognized by the federal government.


Journal: Journal of Geographic Information System
DOI: jgis.2018.106037(PDF)
Paper Id: 89223 (metadata)

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The Specificity of a Diagnostic FDG-PET Study Is a Function of the Patient and the Location

Author: Michael L. Goris

The present paper is based on the observations that 1) there is reported variation in the specificities according to the type of tumor targeted (target) by FDG PET and 2) that while one can posit that the sensitivity of the tracer depends on the avidity for glucose and the plasma supply of the target, even so that the targeting cannot influence the avidity of unrelated tissues or lesions. The hypothesis to be tested is twofold: 1) patients imaged for different types of lesions could have a different prevalence of FDG avid tissues or lesions different from the target and 2) that the target lesions could be generally located in body location (sites) more likely to contain unrelated foci of increased uptake. Variance analysis shows that the sensitivity varies according to the target (p = 0.022), but not according to the location (p = 0.34); the specificity varies with the location (p = 0.0012) and the target (p = 0.05). Specificities are significantly different in different primary targets and target locations. The former is assumed to be due to different comorbidities in patients with different targets, the latter to the different locations of unrelated glucose avid organs or structures. Conclusion: When specificities are recorded or defined, the patient population characteristics and the organ or pathology of the false positives should also be described.


Journal: Open Journal of Medical Imaging
DOI: ojmi.2018.84013(PDF)
Paper Id: 89197 (metadata)

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Heavy Metals, Metalloids, Their Toxic Effect and Living Systems

Authors: Ferdous Seraj, Tania Rahman

Pollution of the biosphere by heavy metals is a global hazard that has accelerated since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Toxic heavy metals are harmful to living organisms even at low concentrations whereas heavy metals that are essential trace elements are required by plants at low concentrations but can become toxic at high concentrations. Heavy metals released from different sources accumulate in soil and, where bioavailability is high enough; can adversely affect soil biological functioning and other properties, leading to the loss of soil and ecosystem fertility and health. It is important that heavy metal contaminated sites are remediated as heavy metals do not decompose into less harmful substances like organic contaminants, and thus are retained in the soil. In this review, we survey and analysis our current knowledge and understanding of the abundance of heavy metals in soil, their phytoavailability, their toxicity, their uptake and transport, role of rhizobia and other microbes and overall rhizosphere processes.


Journal: American Journal of Plant Sciences
DOI: ajps.2018.913191(PDF)
Paper Id: 89184 (metadata)

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