Author(s)： Fadimatou Ngounouno Yamgouot, Bernard Déruelle, Isaac Bertrand Gambie Mbowou, Ismaïla Ngounouno
Bioko island (3008 m a.s.l.), is composed of the alkaline basaltic lavas (basalts and hawaiites) with xenoliths. These lavas have a microlitic texture and consisted of euhedral to subhedral phenocrysts (>1 mm) of olivine (0.83 < Mg# < 0.87) and diopside ± Ti-augite. Plagioclase (An62-67Ab35-32Or3-1) phenocrysts are present only in hawaiites. In Harker diagrams, SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O and K2O contents of the lavas increase and Fe2O3, MgO and CaO decrease with increasing differentiation from basalts to hawaiites. The compatible elements Ni, Cr and V decrease strongly in basalts and remain at low levels in hawaiites. Basaltic lavas from Bioko lavas have low Hf contents (4.2 – 9.2 ppm) and consequently higher Hf/Zr ratios (50 – 90) than those (<50) of similar lavas from Continue reading →
Author(s)： Christian Fremerey*, Anne K. Liefländer, Franz X. Bogner
Any everyday subject may trigger individual conceptions either scientifically correct or naively shaped (misconceptions, alternative conceptions). For any educator, knowledge about a pupil’s individual perception may strongly support teaching success. Within this context, we see the use of drinking water as daily behavior loaded with conceptions. We monitored the perceptions of two different samples, of high achieving 10th graders and of undergraduates in Biology. All participants responded to Continue reading →
Plant biomass, primary production and mineral cycling in the beech forest (Fagus sylvatica L.), Hestehave in Jutland, Denmark were studied over a 50-year period. The role of the forest as a carbon sink was also assessed. Aboveground tree biomass was 226 t·ha-1 in 1970 and after a 50-year 539 t·ha-1 in 2014, an unexpected increase with 313 t·ha-1. Annual production at those two points in time was 13.4 and 20.5 t·ha-1, respectively. It was apparent that the tree biomass was still acting as a sink for carbon, which was the dominant element in the aboveground parts. The concentration of other elements (N > K > Mg > P > S > Na > Mn > Zn > Fe > Cu) ranged from 495 to 0.4 kg·ha-1. Continue reading →
Author(s)： Levan G. Tielidze, Lela Gadrani, Roman Kumladze
The article considers the variability of Nenskra and Nakra River basins glaciers’ parameters in the years of 1911-2014. Nenskra and Nakra River basins are located on the southern slope of the Great Caucasus, between the Kharikhra, Shdavleri and Tsalgmili ranges, in Georgia, in particular in the Enguri River basin. In our research we used the catalogue of the glaciers of Georgia compiled by K. Podozerskiy in 1911. We also used the military topographic maps with the scale of 1:25,000 and 1:50,000 drawn up Continue reading →
Author(s)： Jong-Kook Lee, Jee-Eun Lee, Seong-Cheol Park, Hee-Dong Cho, Hye-Woong Yoo, Young-Sang Kim, Seong-Ryong Ryu, Woo-Suk Kim, Dong-Joon Ahn
This study was performed to investigate the water repellent effectiveness of natural oil-applied soil when it is used as a building material. Natural oil types such as olive oil, bean oil, perilla oil and linseed oil, which are being used for producing water repellent timber, are selected for the experiments. It is expected that perilla oil and in seed oil, which are drying oil types will have better water repellent effectiveness than the other types. For the evaluation of water repellence of natural oil-applied soil, a contact angle test was performed. A contact angle of water drop on Continue reading →
Most soft materials behave as if they were hardened when subjected to an impact force. The strain rate dependence of viscosity resistance is the reason for this behavior. The authors carried out drop impact tests on several types of soft materials under the condition of a flat frontal impact. The impact force waveform of soft materials was found to consist of a thorn-shaped waveform and a succeeding mountain-shaped waveform. Based on our experimental observations, we believe that Continue reading →
SCIRP offers extremely generous APC reductions to support authors from Low- and Middle-Income Countries. This scheme is free of any bureaucratic or administrative barriers. To give this scheme a name and to refer to it in an easy way, SCIRP’s APC reduction scheme is called SCIRP’s Open Access Publishing Fund (SOAPF). In fact SCIRP is subsidizing authors by giving money back to them if compared to the amount of SCIRP’s regular APC.
Usually the first author of the paper will also be the corresponding author. SCIRP will just look at the country of origin of this author and will initiate the online invoice accordingly. In case the first author and the corresponding author differ, APC reductions are determined for each author’s country of origin and the least favorable APC reduction is used. This is to protect SCIRP from possible unfair exploitation of SOAPF.
DNA damage, due to environmental factors and normal metabolic processes inside the cell, can be subdivided into two main types: endogenous damage and exogenous damage. Damage to DNA alters the spatial configuration of the helix, and such alterations can be detected by the cell. Once damage is localized, specific DNA repair molecules bind at or near the site of damage and form a complex that enables the actual repair to take place. Further study on the mechanism of DNA Damage and Repairwhich can help us have a better understanding of genes and related disease is significantly important and valuable.
In this special issue, we intend to invite front-line researchers and authors to submit original research and review articles on exploring DNA Damage and Repair. Potential topics include, but are not limited to: Continue reading →
Ab initio calculations of the band structure, total and partial densities of states and the spatial distribution of the electron charge density of crystalline Na2GeS3 are performed in the framework of density functional theory in the local density approximation for an exchange-correlation potential. According to the calculation results, sodium thiogermanate is a direct-gap crystal with the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band at the point of the Brillouin zone. The calculated band gap is Eg= 2.51 eV. The nature of the components of the electronic states in different subbands of the valence band is determined. The calculated total density of states in the valence band of the crystal is compared with the known experimental X-ray photoelectron Continue reading →
Author(s)： Ali Mahamat Nour, Ouattara Frédéric, Zerbo Jean Louis, Gyébré Aristide Marie Frédéric, Nanéma Emmanuel, Zougmoré François
The statistical study of F2 layer critical frequency at Dakar station from 1971 to 1996 is carried out. This paper shows foF2 statistical diurnal for all geomagnetic activities and all seasons and that during solar maximum and minimum phases. It emerges that foF2 diurnal variation graphs at Dakar station exhibits the different types of foF2 profiles in African EIA regions. The type of profile depends on solar activity, season and solar phase. During solar minimum and under quiet time Continue reading →