Metallography of an Underground Oil Pipeline

Authors: Francisco Casanova-del-Angel, Alejandra Córdova-Castillo

The purpose of this article is to show a metallographic analysis of an underground pipeline taken out of operation upon failure. The pipeline had an 8.89 cm (3.5”) diameter and a 7 mm thickness. The study was based on a 45 cm long pipe sample, visibly and entirely corroded, with a fish-mouth crack along its length. The work contributes to finding new ways to prevent structural failure, which has high-impact consequences from the point of view of production, damage to property, pollution, and risks to human live. Through this analysis the knowledge on behavior of failures in terrestrial ducts has been extended. Development of the research included metallographic, chemical, and mechanical tests on the sample in order to know the composition of the material, its strength and its physical conditions upon taking it out of operation. After the analysis of the laboratory tests, the physical and chemical features were compared to existing national and international regulations, which allowed a specific characterization of the conditions of the sample. In accordance with the regulations, the grade of the pipe was between ×65 and ×70. Tensile testing was carried out to obtain mechanical properties in order to corroborate the grade of pipeline steel and complement the metallographic analysis.


Journal: Open Journal of Metal
DOI: 10.4236/ojmetal.2018.83003 (PDF)
Paper Id: 86709


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Solitary Endobronchial Papilloma Mimicking a Neoplastic Lesion

Authors: Smadhi Hanen, Khalfallah Ikbel, Diouani Mohamed Fethi,
Abdennadher Mahdi, Attia Monia, Ayadi-Kaddour Aida, Megdiche Mohamed Lamine

Papilloma is a rare benign tumor. Laryngeal location is the most frequent. The bronchial involvement remains unusual. It represents 0.38% of pulmonary tumors. We report the case of a 39-year-old, smoker man, who consulted for a cough following during six months with persistent radiological opacity despite antibiotic treatment. The physical examination was without particularities. Flexible bronchoscopy revealed a swollen endobronchial lesion completely obstructing the orifice of the intermediate trunk. Bronchial biopsies at this level showed inflammatory mucosa. The chest CT scan objectified an endobronchial tissular mass in the intermediate trunk. Pulmonary neoplasia was suspected. Diagnostic and therapeutic surgery was performed. Histopathological examination concluded to an endobronchial squamous papilloma.


Journal: Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases
DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2018.83005 (PDF)
Paper Id: 86681 (metadata)

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Simplified Protocol of Quantum Teleportation

Author: Mario Mastriani

A simplified version of the quantum teleportation protocol is presented in here. Its experimental confirmation will have deep implications for a better understanding of Quantum Entanglement with a particular projection on Quantum Communications.


Journal: Journal of Quantum Information Science
DOI: 10.4236/jqis.2018.83007 (PDF)
Paper Id: 86656 (metadata)

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Inorganic Elements in Eggs of Two Cavity-Nesting Passerine Species at and around Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

Authors: Shannon Marie Gaukler, Charles Dean Hathcock, Jeanne Marie Fair

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to build nuclear weapons, and currently operates as a national research laboratory. As part of an ongoing assessment of site-related ecological risk at LANL, western bluebird (Sialia mexicana) and ash-throated flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens) eggs were collected from 1997 to 2012 and analyzed for 18 inorganic elements. Concentrations of many inorganic elements in eggs were below reporting limits. Continue reading

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A Comparison of Various Normalization Methods for LC/MS Metabolomics Data

Authors: Jacob E. Wulff, Matthew W. Mitchell

In metabolomics data, like other -omics data, normalization is an important part of the data processing. The goal of normalization is to reduce the variation from non-biological sources (such as instrument batch effects), while maintaining the biological variation. Many normalization techniques make adjustments to each sample. One common method is to adjust each sample by its Total Ion Current (TIC), i.e. for each feature in the sample, divide its intensity value by the total for the sample. Because many of the assumptions of these methods are dubious in metabolomics data sets, we compare these methods to two methods that make adjustments separately for each metabolite, rather than for each sample. These two methods are the following: 1) for each metabolite, divide its value by the median level in bridge samples (BRDG); 2) for each metabolite divide its value by the median across the experimental samples (MED). These methods were assessed by comparing the correlation of the normalized values to the values from targeted assays for a subset of metabolites in a large human plasma data set. The BRDG and MED normalization techniques greatly outperformed the other methods, which often performed worse than performing no normalization at all.


Journal: Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology
DOI: 10.4236/abb.2018.98022 (PDF)
Paper Id: 86606 (metadata)

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Determinants of Life Insurance Policy Surrenders

Authors: Thomas Poufinas, Gina Michaelide

Life insurance policies assist individuals maintain the value of their money and build savings to be used in the future. However in times of crisis their attitude may change. On one hand, they have an interest in keeping their policies, as they can be used to cover their future, medium-term or long-term needs in case of retirement or death. On the other hand, they may need the premium money or the accumulated savings to meet short-term needs so they lapse or surrender them—when a surrender value exists. A natural question is what are the drivers of the behavior of the insured? When do they decide to stop them and when do they choose to maintain them? We use linear regression to identify how certain main macroeconomic variables (Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita growth, unemployment, inflation, short-term and long term interest rates, and consumer confidence index) can explain the behavior of the insured towards keeping or interrupting their life insurance policy. We do that for pension savings (pure and plain vanilla endowment—including pensions), term life, whole life and unit linked individual policies.


Journal: Modern Economy
DOI: 10.4236/me.2018.98089 (PDF)
Paper Id: 86595 (metadata)

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The Potential Impact of Incentives on Managed Lane Travel

Authors: Namoo A. Han, Mark W. Burris

The use of managed lanes to control and maximize freeway throughput is increasing. One way of encouraging more managed lane use is through the implementation of incentives. In the Dallas-Fort Worth area, a managed lane is being added to the I-30 (Tom Landry freeway) and incentives to maximize the use of this lane were planned. Since the managed lanes were not yet open and the incentives were hypothetical, a stated preference survey was used to gauge the potential impact of the incentives on traveler behavior. The stated preference questions were designed using Db-efficient and random adaptive designs. The incentives were chosen by looking at other programs around the country and through discussion with transportation experts. Once ready, the survey was administered online to travelers in the area and a total of 898 usable responses were gathered. Continue reading

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Identifying Brain Characteristics of Bright Students

Authors: Ramla Ghali, Hamdi Ben Abdessalem, Claude Frasson, Roger Nkambou

Gifted students have different ways of learning. They are characterized by a fitful level of attention and intuitive reasoning. In order to distinguish gifted students from normal students, we conducted an experiment with 17 pupils, willing participants in this study. We collected different types of data (gender, age, performance, initial average in math and EEG mental states) in a web platform called NetMath intending for the learning of mathematics. We selected ten tasks divided into three difficulty levels (easy, medium and hard). Participants were invited to respond to top-level exercises on the four basic operations in decimals. Our first results confirmed that the student’s performance has no relation with age. A younger 9-year-old student achieved a higher score than the group with an average of 68.18%. This student can be considered as a gifted one. The gifted students can be also characterized by a mean value of attention (around 60%). They also can be defined by slightly weaker values of their mental states of attention and workload in comparison with the weak pupils.


Journal: Journal of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications
DOI: 10.4236/jilsa.2018.103006 (PDF)
Paper Id: 86513 (metadata)

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Confluent Education in a Counseling Psychology Program

Authors: Paul Jenkins, Augusto Penafiel, B. Charles Tatum

This study examined the effectiveness of using a humanistic teaching model in a graduate level counseling program. Specifically, the Confluent Education model was implemented in a Master’s level, psychological assessment course. The results of a knowledge test suggested only marginally significant differences between the experimental and traditionally taught (control) groups. However, the results from student feedback clearly showed that the students in the experimental group preferred Confluent Education over the traditional model, which suggests that Confluent Education is more engaging and increases the student’s confidence in their counseling and critical thinking skills.


Journal: Psychology
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.98113 (PDF)
Paper Id: 86483 (metadata)

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Geometric Aspects of Quasi-Periodic Property of Dirichlet Functions

Authors: Dorin Ghisa, Andrei Horvat-Marc

The concept of quasi-periodic property of a function has been introduced by Harald Bohr in 1921 and it roughly means that the function comes (quasi)-periodically as close as we want on every vertical line to the value taken by it at any point belonging to that line and a bounded domain Ω. He proved that the functions defined by ordinary Dirichlet series are quasi-periodic in their half plane of uniform convergence. We realized that the existence of the domain Ω is not necessary and that the quasi-periodicity is related to the denseness property of those functions which we have studied in a previous paper. Hence, the purpose of our research was to prove these two facts. We succeeded to fulfill this task and more. Namely, we dealt with the quasi-periodicity of general Dirichlet series by using geometric tools perfected by us in a series of previous projects. The concept has been applied to the whole complex plane (not only to the half plane of uniform convergence) for series which can be continued to meromorphic functions in that plane. The question arise: in what conditions such a continuation is possible? There are known examples of Dirichlet series which cannot be continued across the convergence line, yet there are no simple conditions under which such a continuation is possible. We succeeded to find a very natural one.


Journal: Advances in Pure Mathematics
DOI: 10.4236/apm.2018.88042 (PDF)
Paper Id: 86469 (metadata)

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