Biogenic Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Guava (Psidium guajava) Leaf Extract and Its Larvicidal Action against Anopheles gambiae

Authors: Agnes Antoinette Ntoumba, Francois Eya’ane Meva, Wolfgang Eyisap Ekoko, Loick Pradel Kojom Foko, Etoile Ngo Hondt, Carsten Schlüsener, Bastian Moll,
Gisele Etame Loe, Philippe Belle Ebanda Kedi, Jean Yves Sikapi Fouda, Christoph Janiak, Leopold Gustave Lehman

The progress in the field of nanotechnology has contributed to the development of tools for combating the most critical problems in developing countries. The requirements that such tools should meet are low-cost and resource settings, environmental protection, ease of use, and availability. The use of plant properties for the generation of nanoparticles (NPs), which serve as bioinsecticides to combat the plasticity and resistance of mosquitoes and parasites, is considered possible. Here, we report for the first time the larvicidal activity of silver (Ag) NPs (AgNPs) synthesized from Psidium guajava (P. guajava) extract, which targets the 4th instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae. Concentrations of AgNPs between 0 and 200 ppm were used and their LC50 at 24 h and 48 h were determined as 19.55 ppm and 8.737 ppm, respectively. The AgNPs were stable and highly effective against the larvae of A. gambiae and thereby we anticipate that they can be used to combat vector-borne diseases in developing countries.


Journal: Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology
DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2020.111004

Paper Id: 97051 (metadata)

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Usability Evaluation and Assessment of Computed Tomography Scan

Authors: Saad Aldoihi, Omar Hammami

Usability is a vital characteristic in operating medical machines, especially radiological machines, such as computed tomography (CT) scans and X-rays. The more the body is exposed to it, the greater the negative effect has. If usability is crucial to a specific industry, it is more crucial in the medical health industry due to its tremendous effect on safety and the patient’s health. This study examines the usability of CT scans based on 14 attributes from hospitals across Saudi Arabia. The study revealed that usability consistency, visibility, minimalism, memory, and flexibility have the most usability catastrophic complaints, where the overall catastrophic rate exceeds 20%. Creating a shortcut for frequently used operations is critically important, because it has a fundamental effect in minimizing physical and mental exertion.


Journal: Intelligent Information Management
DOI: 10.4236/iim.2020.121002(PDF)
Paper Id: 96978 (metadata)

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Digital Transformation of Traditional Chinese Banks

Authors: Ziyun Shu, Shuk-Yu Tsang, Taoxuan Zhao

The paper examines the status quo of traditional Chinese banks under the attack of the new digital giants in China—Alibaba (Alipay) and Tencent (WeChat). Traditional banks urgently need their own analysis and corresponding changes in order to stand out in the tide of the times and not be oppressed by digital giants. Banks have also launched their own e-commerce platform, but there are many shortcomings. Based on the analysis of characteristics of digital platforms, the paper put forward corresponding suggestions to banks in the ecosystem to better cope with future opportunities and challenges. Using a case study approach showing the traditional services provided by CCB’s mobile banking (China Construction Bank, one of the famous traditional banks in China) and corresponding improvements, the paper concludes that traditional Chinese Banks can protect themselves in four ways—emphasizing more on digital platform services, designing credit card platform, cooperating with third party on the platform, and establishing E-commerce and bank APP for users.


Journal: Open Journal of Business and Management
DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2020.81005(PDF)
Paper Id: 96964 (metadata)

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Women in Development: A Critique of Neo-Classical Economic Theory as One of the Causes for Gender Inequality

Author: Reham El Morallyorcid

This research reviews and critiques neoliberalism and neoclassical economics for them being one of the main causes for the subordination and oppression of women. This research does not claim that neoliberalism is the axis of evil; however it discusses how alternative economic and political theories can be more useful and efficient for women and gender development. The research question is mainly concerned with how far do neoclassical economic theories perpetuate and intensify power struggle between genders? The research argues for neoclassical economic theory being a main driving force in the subordination and oppression of women, especially in global South countries that have been subjugated to structural adjustment. In order to do so, this research utilizes an intersectional feminist framework of analysis to methodologically deconstruct neoclassical economic theory and critically investigate their gendered effects on beneficiary countries. Moreover, the political conceptual framework of “inside-outside”, pioneered by Robert Cox, is the analytical tool used throughout this research. The research will, therefore, first clarify the difference between gender and sex, and clarify what I mean when I say “neoclassical economic theory”. Followed by a criticism of how neoclassical economics is a theory of discrimination. An argument for the non-existence of a separation between the global level and the social level when analyzing gender relations will be the primary objective of this study. Lastly, the research discusses how structural adjustment programs affect women, specifically women living in poverty and armed conflict.


Journal: Open Journal of Political Science
DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2020.101001(PDF)
Paper Id: 96932 (metadata)

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Routine Progesterone Supplementation in Threatened Abortion: Is It a Sound Practice?

Authors: Adel E. Elgergawy, Ahmed E. Abdelnaby, Shereen B. Elbohoty

Aim: To evaluate the benefits and hazards of routine progesterone supplementation in threatened abortion and whether it is a sound practice or not. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Tanta University in the period from January 2018 to December 2018. Eligible patients (n = 190) were randomly allocated into 2 groups: study group who will receive progesterone supplementation (prog. group) and control group who will receive no treatment (place. group). Results: No significant differences were found between both groups regarding all demographic data and pregnancy characteristics. Abortions were higher in place. group 17 (23.94%) than in prog. group 12 (16.44%) with no significant difference p value = 0.263. The incidence of preterm labour was also higher in the place. group 22 (30.99%) in comparison to the prog. group 17 (23.29%) with no significant difference p value = 0.300. Conclusion: Progesterone supplementation in threatened abortion was not beneficial although it reduced abortion and preterm labour rates.


Journal: Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2019.912150(PDF)
Paper Id: 96896 (metadata)

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The Performance of a Novel Latching-Type Electromagnetic Actuator for Single-Port Laparoscopic Surgery

Authors: Haochen Wang, Ali El Wahed

This paper reports on the performance evaluation of a novel latching-type electromagnetic actuator which is designed to be embedded at selected joints along single-port laparoscopic surgical instruments (SLS). The aim of this actuator is to allow these instruments to become articulated with a push of a button in order to provide the optimum angulation required during SLS operations. This new actuator is comprised of electromagnetic coil elements, soft magnetic frames and a permanent magnet. Unlike conventional electromagnetic actuators, latching-type electromagnetic actuators could maintain their positions at either end of the actuation stroke without any power application requirement. In the current design, magnetic attraction forces initiated between the permanent magnet and the magnetic frame are utilised to lock the position of the actuator whilst a certain angulation position of the actuator is achieved as a result of the magnetic repulsion forces established between the permanent magnet and the coil elements. The performance of the new actuator in terms of the output force, maximum angulation and patient’s safety, was evaluated experimentally and the results were found to compare well with those acquired numerically using finite element methods. This actuator was seen to exhibit sufficient actuation forces and hence, it was capable of providing adaptable angulation characteristics for SLS tools. Finally, thermal evaluation of the actuator’s operation was conducted, which was found to be within safety limits specified by clinicians.


Journal: Journal of Modern Physics
DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2019.1014109(PDF)
Paper Id: 96863


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The Effect of Body Mass Index on Survival in Breast Cancer

Authors: Aiat Morsy, Samir Shehata

Background: Obesity is a well-known risk factor for breast cancer recurrence and poor prognosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on survival in breast cancer patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 50 breast cancer patients treated in our hospital from January 2012 to December 2013. Patients were divided according to body mass index when diagnosed into: normal weight BMI < 25 Kg/m2, over weight BMI ≥ 25 Kg/m2 to < 30 Kg/m2, obesity BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m2. In this study the effect of body mass index on progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was evaluated. Results: The disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) decreased in overweight and obese patients. Both overweight and obesity were predictors for increased risks of breast cancer relapse and mortality with a median disease free survival for overweight 29 mons and obese patients 11 mons and a median overall survival for overweight patients 49 mons and obese patients 39 mons. Conclusion: Obesity and overweight are associated with poorer disease free survival and overall survival in patients with breast cancer.


Journal: Journal of Cancer Therapy
DOI: 10.4236/jct.2019.1012075(PDF)
Paper Id: 96853 (metadata)

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High Resolution Compact Finite Difference Schemes for Convection Dominated Problems

Authors: Abdullah Shah, Saher Akmal Khan, Najib Ullah

In this short article, the upwind and central compact finite difference schemes for spatial discretization of the first-order derivative are analyzed. Comparison of the schemes is provided and the best discretization scheme for convection dominated problems is suggested.


Journal: World Journal of Mechanics
DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2019.912017(PDF)
Paper Id: 96814 (metadata)

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Molecular Docking Studies on Anticonvulsant Enaminones Inhibiting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

Authors: Yayin Fang, Jamiya Kirkland, Isis J. Amaye, Patrice Jackson-Ayotunde,
Matthew George Jr.

Epilepsy is described as the most common chronic brain disorder. A typical symptom of epilepsy results in uncontrolled convulsions caused by temporary excessive neuronal discharges. Although several new anticon-vulsants have been introduced, some types of seizures have still not been adequately controlled with these new and current therapies. There is an urgent need to develop new anticonvulsant drugs to control the many different types of seizures. Many studies have shown that the epilepsies involve more than one mechanism and therefore may be responsible for the various types of observed seizures. Recently reported studies have shown that a group of newly synthesized 6 Hz active anticonvulsant fluorinated N-benzamide enaminones exhibited selective inhibitions of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels. Nav channels are responsible for the initial inward currents during the depolarization phases of the action potential in excitable cells. The activation and opening of Nav channels result in the initial phases of action potentials. We hypothesize that there is an essential pharmacophore model for the interactions between these enaminones and the active sites of Nav channels. The research reported here is focused on molecular docking studies of the interactions that occur between the fluorinated N-benzamide enaminones and the Nav channels. These studies may open an avenue for designing anticonvulsant drugs by inhibiting Nav channels.


Journal: Open Journal of Physical Chemistry
DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2019.94015(PDF)
Paper Id: 96776 (metadata)

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Tree Role in Environmental Quality Amelioration of the Sapienza University of Rome Campus

Authors: L. Gratani, F. Tarquini, R. Catoni

The capability of trees growing in the Campus of Sapienza University of Rome to improve environmental quality was analyzed. Measurements of CO2 concentration, air temperature and humidity, traffic density and noise level were carried out along a transect from streets outside the Campus to sites inside. Moreover, measurements were also carried out at the Experimental Garden placed inside the Campus. In each of the considered sites, diameter at breast height, plant height and carbon stored in the tree aboveground biomass were calculated. Air temperature in summer was 5% lower inside the Campus than in the surrounding streets, while relative humidity increased by 4%. CO2 concentration in winter was 11% lower inside than in the surrounding streets. Carbon stored by trees was 374 Mg to which Pinus pinea, Cedrus deodara, Quercus ilex and Tilia × europaea contributed by 30%, 20%, 18% and 13%, respectively. Moreover, noise level was 36% lower inside than in the surrounding streets.


Journal: American Journal of Plant Sciences
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2019.1011148(PDF)
Paper Id: 96678 (metadata)

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